CLT/ICP/SR/TAX97E6 ,i: / Feasibility Study on the ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF COMPARATIVE CMLIZATIONS AT TAKSHASCHILA (TAXILA) BY Dr. Muhammad Rafique Mughal 29 January 1997
Contents A. Historical Background B. Fields of Study/Discipline C. Type of Academic Institute D. Linking Arrangements 2 -Creating a UNESCO Chair E. Human and Technical Resources 3 F. Proposed Site for Establishment of KC and Technical Features 5 G. Estimated Budget for Establishing the Institute 9 H. Ways and Means of Financing 12 I. Suggested Time Schedule 13 Figures 14 & 15 Annexure-1 16-25
FEASlBILllY STUDY ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF COMPARATIVE CIVILIZATIONS AT TAKSHASCHILA (TAJQ-Ld A) HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The beautiful valley of Takshashila which is now known as Taxila, has been a very famous centre of learning in ancient times. The renowned University of Takshaschila has been very well known in the ancient world. As a centre of higher learning and Buddhist art, history, and culture, Taxila played a leading role in the formation and development of human institutions particularly in Asia throughout history for more than 1000 years beginning from the 6th century B.C. Today, innumerable Buddhist religious and settlement sites which are dotting thre valley of Taxila bear testimony to the great historical and cultural significance of this area. Taxila was located on the ancient Silk Route and therefore, it was a meeting place of many cultures, religions, and traditions which gave a unique character to the culture of the Gandhara region, of which Taxila valley was an intergral part (Figure 1). It seems very appropriate to establish an institute of higher learning at such a cultural and historical centre as Taxila, devoted to the study of comparative religions, civilizations and languages. Such a step would be in line with the traditions of ancient university of Takshaschila and also precisely within the principles and objectives of the UNECSO relating to the promotion of education and cultural awareness among developing countries, and strengthening of cooperation among member states. The ancient remains of Taxila are on UNESCO’ World Heritage list s and fall within a “Conservation Zone” declared by the Government of Pakistan and are “protected” under the Antiquities Act, 1975. It is located next to the Federal capital area of Islamabad on the main National Highway and principal Rail road, about 25 kilometers from Islamabad which is also an international airport. Besides the ancient remains, the modem towns of Taxila, Wah, and Hasan Abdal are also located in the fertile valley of Taxila. B) FIELDS OF STUDY/DISCIPLINE It is proposed that in an international institutute functioning in collaboration and affiliation with other related institutions of the region may focus on the following three major disciplines:
1. Comparative Languages and Linguistics 2. Comparative Civilizations 3. Comparative Religions a TYPE OF ACADEMIC INSTITUTE The subjects mentioned under (B) above, are of specialized kind and therefore, should focus on in-depth study, research and thorough analysis of comparative religions, civilizations, and languages of Asia and other parts of the world. It is hoped that the International Institute of Comparative Civilizations (hereafter IICC) would emerge as the first of its kind for the promotion of world religions, languages and civilizations. It is suggested that the Institute of Comparative Civilizations at Taxila (IICC) with interregional linkages and international status should be a high level research institute awarding M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees in three major disciplines and related fields. It is proposed to be a very special institution catering to the requirements of international community of scholars and students, and also in line with the spirit of UNESCO in promoting cooperation and cultural appreciation of human kind. It should emerge as an independent institution located in South Asia having affiliations with relevant institutions in Asia and other countries. D) LINKING ARRANGEMENTS The International Institute of Comparative Civilizations (IICC) would establish institutional linkages/affiliations particularly with those of other countries in Central Asia, South and Southeast Asia, the Gulf and China. The IICC will collaborate in particular, with those institutions which concentrate on ancient civilizations and cultural heritage as the International Institute for Central Asian Studies (IICAS) at Samarkand. There are several other related research and teaching institutions namely Post-Graduate Research Institute, Colombo, Deccan College Post-Graduate Research Institute, Pune, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, IsMEO, Rome, CNRS, Paris etc. The IICC will remain open to any kind of academic linkage and any research programmes with other institutions of the world, for which modalities may have to be worked out. Creating a UNESCO Chair A special Chair of Professor may be created by the UNESCO in one of the three disciplines, preferably in Comparative Religions who may be selected through an open competition. The Chair may be given for at least
three years with an additional period of two years, if no substitute is possible to find. El HUMAN AND TECHNICAL RESOURCES m HUMAN RESOURCES The IICC will require teaching faculty and supporting staff in the first place and an organization for management of the three disciplines. The three departments will require some supporting and secretariat staff which are listed below. For managing the KC, it is proposed to constitute a Board of Governors on which University Grants Commission, Ministry of Education and UNESCO should be represented. In addition, two more members who may be major contributors of funds be included in the governing board. They may have an elected Chairperson. To begin with, a Project Director may be appointed to start managing the affairs of KC, who would then occupy the place of Director/Vice Chancellor when new campus of the Institute is established. List of Personnel for Management and Teaching Teaching 1. Three Professors 2. Three Associate Professors 3. Three Assistant Professors 5. Three Assistants 6. Six Naib Qasids 7. Three Watchmen Management 1. Director/Vice Chancellor 2. Secretary to the Director and Board of Governors 3. Registrar 5. Accounts Officer 6. Administrative Officer 8. One Clerk 9. Four Naib Qasids 10. 10 Watch & Ward Staff 11. 1 Driver 12. .Librarian 13. Assistant Librarian 14. Computer Lab Engineer/Incharge 15. Computer Lab Technician 16. 5 Gardeners
17. 5 Sweepers 18. 2 Electricians 19. 2 Plumbers 20. 1 Electrician 21. Cafeteria Incharge 22. 2 Hostel Wardens (2) TECHNICAL RESOURCES For the planning and designing the KC buildings and implementing an approved scheme, technical manpower is available from within the 1 country but should be engaged through an open competition and selection. The Board of Governors of KC will be responsible to locate such technical and professional personnels from Pakistan and other countries. Laboratory Facilities The KC besides teaching, training and research, will also be engaged in the research and documentation of cultural data on ancient civilizations, monurnents and sites, epigraphical and other records of human kind in Asia. For this purpose, essential equipments to give first aid to the works of art found in the field may be obtained. However, for detailed analysis of materials of different kind and adopting appropriate measures for their preservation, the Conservation Laboratory at Taxila which is being established at the Taxila Museum Campus will be utilized. This new Conservation Laboratory at Taxila will be fully equipped to undertake any kind of conservation on any kind of material. Therefore, there will be no need to duplicate the efforts by creating a new laboratory at KC. In fact, the Conservation Laboratory at Taxila may be affiliated with the IICC. Library Facilities Various national and international organizations will be persuaded to donate books to the KC. In fact, efforts have already been initiated. The Royal Asiatic Society, London has sent a set of their journals for the library which has already been received in Islamabad. Some Pakistani scholars are also willing to donate their personal libraries to IICC wherever such a library is established. It is also intended to request the foreign teams and scholars working in Pakistan and educational or research institutions of various countries to donate books and journals to the library. Equipments For the procurement of equipments, it is proposed to request the TJNESCO and some donor countries to provide necessary equipments for
teaching and research. The following is the tentative list of equipments to be acquired. 1. Photographic equipments consisting of video and other cameras, cassette recorder, camera stand, enlarger, photo laboratory material and equipment. 2. Micro film reader 3. Photocopying machine 4. Audio visual aids, such as projectors, screens etc. 5. Computers; laptop and desktop, laser printer, voltage stabilizers 6. Fax machine and telephones and internet facilities 7. Survey and drawing equipment and materials 8. Vehicle ,double-cabin or large jeep type 9. Storage almirahs, racks and cabinets for maps, photographs etc. 10. Furniture for various technical sections, library racks, tables, chairs, first aid lab, laboratory tables and materials. F) PROPOSED SITE FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF IICC AND TECHNICAL FEATURES (1) Temporary Location To begin with, it is proposed that the Centre for the Study of Central Asian Civilization already functioning at the Quid-e-Azam University campus, be upgraded to the level of an Institute. The space for affice and classrooms is already available. The Vice Chancellor has agreed in principle, to vacate the adjacent Sociology Department and hand it to the Centre for Central Asian Civilization. The space will be available from the Quid-e-Azam University free of cost temporarily. It will consist of five halls and several rooms which should be sufficient to make a beginning of KC until a separate campus is established in the Taxila valley. 7 The Vice Chancellor of the Quid-e-Azam University informally has agreed in principle to these arrangements of accomodating IICC by upgrading the existing Centre for the Study of Central Asian Civilization to the level of an Institute. This matter will be placed before the Quid-e-Azam University Academic Council for passing a resolution which will have to be approved by the University Syndicate. The Academic Council is going to meet very soon and is expected to receive permission to teach at M.l?hil and Ph.D. level in the three subjects specified under the fields of study (above). It seems that there will be no waiting period for starting the KC. The objectives of establishing an Institute can immediately be fulfilled first at the Quid-e-Azam University campus and then at its proper location. 5
(2) Peramanent Site of IICC Necessity for New Buildings It is necessary to have new construction according to the special requirements of KC. The Centre for the Study of Central Asian Civilization at Quid-e-Azarn University where the proposed Institute may be located temporarily will not require any modifications because the space will not be available for permanent housing of the KC. Location of Proposed Site The Taxi-la valley was re-examined by this author with the purpose of finding a suitable place for the location of KC. After one week of travels and study of topography, it seems that the most appropriate place would be somewhere between the triangle marked by Dharmarajika Stupa, Jaulian Monastery and Giri. (Figure 2) Rationale for Selecting Giri The proposed site near Giri between the triangular area indicated on the map seems to be ideal for possible location of the KC. It is somewhat away from the main urban centre and is marked by a beautiful setting of natural environment. The Buddhist monasteries and stupas were usually located in the most picturesque areas of Swat and Taxila. Similarly, this Institute devoted to the study of comparative civilizations of human kind should be located at an equally beautiful place. The existing archaeological remains of the fortress of Giri and Buddhist monastic establishment including the monuments of Islamic period could be integrated within the building complex. An access metalled road is already provided to the area which can be widened and the area could be developed further. The area is also very easily accessible from Islamabad and Taxila because of its proximity to both the places and is on the Silk Route and National Highway leading to Peshawar and beyond to Afghanistan on the one hand, and to China across the Karakorurn Highway on the other. Different types of shops (meat, vegetable, fruit etc.) are also located in the nearby towns where electricity is also available at the site. Alternative Sites If Giri is not found a suitable site for any reason, then it is proposed to locate the KC on the road to Khanpur, either near Mohra Moradu or Jaulian This area is already well developed where all the facilities such as electricity, 6
gas and communications are available. This area is also equally beautiful as we go inside the valley. Acquisition of Land It is suggested to 500 acres of state land may be marked for this purpose and the Government of Pakistan be persuaded to donate this piece of land for the International Institute of Comparative Civilizations at Taxila. ’ Types of Buildings to be Established The following categories of buildings are proposed to be established at the IICC i> Academic Block ii) Administration Block iii) Library iv) Residential Block (for students and staff) 4 Auditorium vi) Sports Complex vii) Meditation Hall viii) Market Place W Computer Centre 4 Cafeteria
AREA COVERED BY EACH BUILDING TYPE Area Ifor all the buildings of the Institute is given as under. (For details, see Annexure 1) 8
G) ESTIMATED BUDGET FOR ESTABLISHING THE INSTITUTE (a) Construction Cost The cost of constmcton includes the woodwork, doors, windows, glass and electric wiring. All the furnishings are exclusives. The cost of construction of each part of the Institute is given as under. (For details see Annuxure 1.) OR US$ = 3,080,615 [IS = Rs. 401
(b) COST OF DEVELOPING THE AREA Cost will have to be incurred on developing the infrasturcture for the Institute and also on landscaping. (c) COST OF FIXED ASSETS Or us $ = 2,218,043 ,.L : I .
(d) TOTAL COST OF ESTABLISHING THE INSTITUTE [1$ = Rs.401 / h t (e) ESTIMATED COST OF RUNNING THE INSTITUTE Following is the per month cost to be incurred by the institute.
I H) WAYS AND MEANS OF FINANCING Funds available From University Grants Commission The University Grant Commission, Islamabad, has agreed in principle to provide funding for one Professor for teaching Linguistics and Comparative Languages. Qualified persons are available from the Asian countries for these subjects. Similarly, suitable scholars to teach Comparative Civilizations may be possible to support financially by the Government of Pakistan or through private donors. Campaign to Raise‘ Funds An international campaign may be launched to raise funds from different sources because the UNESCO may not be in a position to provide all the funding for the establishment of KC, construction of all the buildings, provision of requisite equipments and to meet recurring costs needed to run the Institute. The Centre for the Study of Central Asian Civilization has Rs300,OOOas fixed deposit, out of which the Journal of Central Asia is published regularly. The following measures are proposed to raise funds for the KC. 1. Efforts may be made to create endowments by different governments, institutions, industries or multinational companies for creating chairs and for construction of various components of the Institute. The foreign scholars and international teams working in Pakistan especially those from the Buddhist countries may be persuaded and encouraged to generate funds for donation to the Institute. They can be encouraged to construct buildings within the approved plan of overall development and layout of the Institute which can be appropriately named after the donors. This would provide them a base for their research works in Pakistan and adjoining regions and opportunities to 7 interact with scholars from different countries. 2. A Pakistan-Japan Colloquium is going to be held in September 1997 on the significance of Gandhara in human history. Funds could be raised on that occasion. Similar colloquia could be held in Pakistan by other Buddhist countries for fund raising. 3. The UNESCO could provide equipments and funding for supporting the UNESCO Chair at KC. Other Chairs could be funded by Pakistan and other countries. 4. A special cell for raising funds could be created right in the beginning and under supervision of the Board of Governors so that while the KC is coming up, sufficient funds are generated and are available for utilizing to run the 12
bxstitute. It seems that eventually the KC will represent a real international centre of scholars from all the regions and world institutions where specialized studies relating to the development of human civilizations will be carried out. I) SUGGESTED PROJECT SCHEDULE As already mentioned, a beginning can be made at the existing Centre for the Study of Central Asian Civilization at the Quid-e-Azam University where suitable space will be available free of cost belonging to the Centre and the Sociology Department. Simultaneously a preliminary work for the designing and planning of the KC at the proposed site may be taken up and completed within 5 years or earlier, if possible, so that the IICC could be shifted to a new campus. It is proposed that all the buildings of the KC be completed by 2002 A.D. or in five years and then, the Institute be shifted from its temporary location in Islamabad to the permanent site in the Takshashila valley.
Figure 1: The location of Takshaschila (Taxila) in the famous Gandha region of Pakistan. 14
MAP OF TAXILA VALLEY ANCENT SITES-. _ . ___ _ 0 ROAD. _ _ .__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - RAN ROAD _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --cti,e.-e HILLS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ &,a, a. -3r.r .~y+,“:. STREAMS OR RIVER _ _ _ _ -
_.. _ ANNEXUREl Details of all the buildings to be constructed for the Takshashila Institute 16
ACADEMIC BLOCK Each Department will have the following 4 3 2 7 6 5 8 1 8 3 Class For Associate Professor Office for Professor 1 Toilet For Assistant Laboratory Secretary/Assistant Rooms 20 50 30 x 25 10 12 14 15 6x8 30 12 14 Area Covered by Three Academic Blocks = 3 x 1680 Add 1 Common Room for All Male Students 17 x 14 1 Common Room for All Female Students 15 x 12 Toilets For female students 10 x 12 Add 50% for circulation -II TOTAL AREA OF ACADEMIC BLOCH 17
CAFETERIA = T - - - - 2 3 4 - - - - - = MEDITATION HALL
SPORTS COMPLEX Badminton Court 55 x 25 1,375 Basket Ball Court 100 x 60 6,000 Squash Court 50 x 30 1,500 Table Tennis Court 23 x 20 460 Toilets and Lockers For Male Students 30 x 15 450 Toilets and Lockers For Female Students 20 x 15 300 10,085 IH Add 20% for waiting and ventilation MI TOTAL AREA OF SPORTS COMPLEX 11 (( . 12,1021
MARKET PLACE 1 Doctor’ Clinic / Dispensary s 2 Barber ShoD 3 - Laundry Shop 4 Book Store Photostating Shop 5 General Store a - Bank 17 x 25 III -7 Public Call Office - - - Add 30% for Ventilation TOTAL AREA OF MARKET PLACE Other perishable items like meat, poultry, vegetables, fruit etc can be bought from the nearby towns.
LIBRARY BUILDING Librarian Desk Assistant Librarian Reference Section Micro Films Reading Areas Shelves For 100,000 Books 11 TOTAL AREA OF LIBRARY BUILDING II COMPUTER CENTRE Computer Centre Incharge’ Office s Technical Support Room Store Room Supervisor’ s Desk Computer lab for 35 students TOTAL AREA OF COMPUTER CENTRE
RESIDENTIAL BLOCK A. STAFF RESIDENCES - - ~ -1 L~s~;;,;~;; for Director, 1 3,5001 8 28.001 - Professors Associate Professors and - - -2 3 Bedroom houses for Assistant Professors, - Registrar, Treasurer, Computer Engineer - etc - -3 2 Bed Room houses for Accountant, Cashier - Librarian, etc. - -4 2 Rooms accomodation for Technician, - Assistants, Hostel Wardens, watch & - ward staff, Cooks, etc. - TOTAL AREA OF STAFF RESIDENCEIF 11 24
B. HOSTELS FOR STUDENTS hostel For Female Students: Bedroom Bath “. For 30 Students = 240 x 30 11 7,20011 1 Common-room (for T.V etc.) Add 30% for circulation / )( 2.26211 TOTAL AREA OF HOSTEL (Female Students) 11 9,s 0211 .. .. 25
40 Establishmentand operation of international and regional centresunder Unesco’ auspices’ s 40.1 The General Conference, Having examined document 21C/36 prepared by the Director-General in pursuance of resol- ution 34.1 adopted at its twentieth session, Having taken note of decision 3.4 adopted by the Executive Board at its 109th session following consideration of document 109 EX/6, Deeming the considerations and proposals contained document 21C/36 to be such as to meet the concerns expressedin 20C/Resolution 34.1, Stressing that the principles and guidelines regarding the establishment and operation of inter- national and regional centres under Unesco’ auspices should be sufficiently general to be s applicable to all situations encountered by the Organization in this field, I. Approves the principles set forth in Part II of document 21C/36 and the guidelines appearing in paragraphs 47 and 49 to 54 of Part III of document 21C/36; 2. Invites the Director-General to regard the model agreement annexed to document 21C/36 as a suitable framework for defining the relations between the Organization and the centres concerned.