Lexicography is the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries. It is the oldest part of lexicology. In Lexicology, word is a part of the system. In Lexicography, word is an individual unit in respect of its meaning and use from the practical point of its use by the reader of the dictionary for learning the language or comprehending texts in it or for any other purpose. The lexicographers are mostly guided by the principle of convenience in retrieval of the data and arrange words usually in alphabetical order.
Dictionary is a book that lists the words of a language in a certain order (usually alphabetical) and gives their meanings or equivalent words in a different language. Latin forms ‘dictionaries’ or ‘dictionarium’, from ‘dictio’ ‘action of saying’ or ‘word’, itself from the verb ‘dicere’, ‘say’. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) ‘dictonarius’ was used for the first time in 1225 by the poet and grammarian Joannes de Garlandia, or John of Garland(e) (1195 - 1272).
Old English Period 600-700 AD glosses of religious books the Leiden Glossary the Epinal Glossary the Erfurt Glossary the Corpus Glossary (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge)
Old English glossaries Образец текста Второй уровень Третий уровень Четвертый уровень Пятый уровень https://archive.org/details/corpuspinalerf00lindiala The Leiden Glossary is a collection of smaller glossaries (sets of glosses) under the name of the The Epinal Glossary has advanced to first- treatise from which it was extracted. The words letter order: all the A-words come together, are in the order in which they happened to come followed by all the B-words and so on to Z. in the treatise without any further. In the Epinal Glossary there were only a few English words, in the Corpus Glossary their number increased.
Aelfric´s GLOSSARY, 1000 AD Aelfric, abbot of Eynsham monastery near Oxford, compiled a glossary that was ordered thematically. It was a list of Latin words, with Old English equivalents with such topics as ‘God, heaven, angels, sun, moon, earth, sea, herbs, trees, weapons, metals, precious stones’. Образец текста Второй уровень Третий уровень Четвертый уровень Пятый уровень
15th century Six important vocabularies of the fifteenth century are printed by Wright-Wuelcker, most of them arranged under subject headings. About the middle of the century, also, was compiled the famous Medulla Grammatice, designated as ‘the first Latin-English dictionary’. Medulla Grammatice or Medulla Grammaticae ("the Marrow of Grammar") is collection of fifteenth century Latin-Middle English glossaries in the British Museum. The English Dictionary, like the English Constitution, is the creation of no one man, and of no one age; it is a growth that has slowly developed itself down the ages. Its beginnings lie far back in times almost prehistoric. And these beginnings themselves, although the English Dictionary of to-day is lineally developed from them, were neither Dictionaries, nor even English. As to their language, they were in the first place and principally Latin: as to their substance, they consisted, in large part at least, of glosses. They were Latin, because at the time to which we refer, the seventh and eighth centuries of our era, Latin was in Western Europe the only language of books, the learning of Latin the portal to all learning James Murray
The first English monolingual dictionaries Robert Cawdrey A Table Alphabetical of Hard John Bullokar Usuall English Wordes An English Expositor (1604) (1616) Henry Cockeram English Dictionarie (1623)
18th century A New English Dictionary by John Kersey (1702). The lexicon included 28,000 entries of general Nathaniel Bailey’s An Universal vocabulary. Etymological Dictionary of 1721 40,000 headwords of everyday general vocabulary, unusual words and etymology.
Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language of 1755. 114,000 citations to prove the landmark in establishing the role definitions, connotations; a corpus of of lexicographer as an authority on commentaries if he authentic literary the correct spelling, pronunciation doubted the usage texts by the best, and definitions reputable authors the meaning of the words in chronological order, Образец текста from the literal to Второй уровень the figurative, metaphorical, Третий уровень stylistic meaning Четвертый уровень Пятый уровень
A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles”(NED) In 1858, one of the members of the English philological society Dr. Trench raised the question of compiling such a dictionary, which would include all the words existing in the English language, irrespective of their style. The first volume was published in 1884, the last one - in 1928. A supplement appeared in 1933. The dictionary was called “A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles” (NED) and consisted of twelve volumes. About one thousand people took part in collecting the material for it. In 1933, it was republished under the title “The Oxford English Dictionary” and consisted of thirteen volumes.
The Oxford english dictionary (OED) The title The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series/ In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably only appear in electronic form; Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press, feels it unlikely that it will ever be printed.
Longman dictionary of contemporary English (ldoce) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) was first published by Longman in 1978. The latest version of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is the sixth edition. The premium website was revised during 2014 and 2015 and offers over a million corpus examples, exceeding that of the paper version and also supplying sound files for every word and 88,000 example sentences, along with various tools for study, teaching, examinations and grammar. The gratis LDOCE online was updated to its current layout in 2008 and offers a search (with spelling assistance), definitions; collocations; many examples and pictures.
Cambridge dictionaries Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013
dictionary A dictionary is “a reference tool, in a paper or electronic form, that provides information on the meaning and use of a representative sample of the lexical items of a language or of a variety of a language, where each item is treated in a separate paragraph and all the paragraphs are ordered for easy consultation” [Bejoint 2010; 34]. A dictionary is not only used as a reference work, it also serves as a kind of “storage facility, a storeroom for a language in which we can find much of what once existed and which exists today” [Sterkenburg 2003; 6].
Types of Dictionaries Thing Books Word Books Encyclopaedic Linguistic (words of designative (all words of the language) – character) – extensive spelling, pronunciation, extralinguistic information meaning, examples of use
From what type of dictionaries are these entries? CAT (family Felidae) - any of a cat [kæt] 1. small , group of carnivorous mammals that includes the domestic, fur-covered true cats—lion, tiger, jaguar, animal often kept as a pet, leopard, puma, and domestic to catch mice, etc. (=wild cat—and the cheetah. Cats cat) any animal of the typically have soft fur often group that includes tigers, strikingly patterned. See also lions, panthers and domestic cat. The history of the leopards. Bell the cat see bell cat family can be traced (2). Let the cat out of the bag see through the fossil record to bag (1). Like a cat on hot bricks the Late Eocene Epoch - very nervous or jumpy…
Overlapping information the word origin in encyclopedic dictionaries; the encyclopedic definitions in linguistic dictionaries; encyclopedic parts (appendices) in linguistic dictionaries, e.g. geographical names, names and dates of birth and life of famous people. American dictionaries tend to be encyclopedic; British dictionaries tend to exclude the extralinguistic information from the entries.
Types of dictionaries Criteria for classification: The nature (scope) of word lists: general (unrestricted) and restricted dictionaries. The kind of information: explanatory vs. specialized (pronouncing , etymological, ideographic dictionaries, etc). The language in which the information is given: monolingual vs. bilingual dictionaries. The prospective user, e.g. advanced learners of English; children, students, etc. Diachronic vs. synchronic Hard vs. soft dictionaries
thesaurus In thesaurus, there is no separate entry for each word. The word occurs simply as part of a list. The words are organized not on the basis of form but on the basis of meaning (not grammatical classes but semantic classes). Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases by Peter Mark Roget, a co- author of the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Thesaurus, begun in 1810 and published in 1852, contained about 40,000 words. It has been re-edited several times since then in many different forms, paper or electronic, with additions and deletions but the same organization. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/thesaurus/
English lexicography Elena Kruglikova Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk e-mail: email@example.com