The Global eBook Market 2011

The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections provides a broad survey of data on emerging ebook markets across Europe and in two BRIC countries: Brazil and China. Furthermore, the study portrays, for each market, characteristic developments and distinct features, such as regulatory... more
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Article > Business / Finance
Published on: 2012-04-23
Pages: 43

The Global 2011 eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections By Rüdiger Wischenbart Additional research by Sabine Kaldonek

Media Partners Publishers Weekly Svensk Bokhandel (, George Slowik (, Lasse Winkler Livres hebdo China Publishing Today (, (, Anna Day Fabrice Piault and Herve Hugueny Book Industry Magazine Russia Informazioni Editoriali (Italy) (, Olga Ro (, Simonetta Pillon Publish News Brazil Buchreport (, (, Carlo Carrenho Thomas Wilking and Daniel Lenz A list of additional contributing organizations and individuals can be found in the Acknowledgments section at the end of this report.

Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 The Scope and the Approach of This Report . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 English-Language and Other eBook Markets . . . . . . . . . 4 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Market Close-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Key Drivers and Debates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Key Characteristics of the Existing Print Book Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Key Market Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Outlook and Projections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 ©2011 O’Reilly Media, Inc. O’Reilly logo is a registered trademark of O’Reilly Media, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 10274.1

Executive Summary T he Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & tion infrastructure, and at least the largest publishing Future Projections provides a broad survey of groups are broadly releasing their new titles as ebooks, data on emerging ebook markets across aside from print. With retail prices on average signifi- Europe and in two BRIC countries: Brazil and cantly higher, as in the English language, and VAT dis- China. Furthermore, the study portrays, for each market, criminating against ebooks in favor of print, the initial characteristic developments and distinct features, such momentum of growth still confronts an environment as regulatory and cultural parameters, the impact of that is difficult for early adopters. global players, such as Amazon, Google, Apple, Sony, Yet as Amazon, Apple, Sony, and Kobo have started and Kobo, as well as an outlook on trends and patterns to roll out localized versions of their online selling plat- as they take shape. Key data on the more mature ebook forms and devices, with Google expected to follow soon, markets in the United States and United Kingdom serve significant momentum is building up, and future projec- as benchmarks. tions see a double digit market share for ebooks for 2015 The findings allow us to assess, on the one hand, how in most European markets. the main drivers of digital change in the publishing In China and Brazil, distinct local factors set those industry impact all those markets in similar ways, as developments clearly apart. In China, mobile is the reading platforms and distribution infrastructures are preferred platform, while “online literature,” often as a becoming available, and publishers in all markets have serialized stream of content, provides a channel for the started to make their title catalogs available in digital dissemination of bookish content well apart from the formats. On the other hand, a wide array of local factors traditional format of the “book.” In Brazil, educational – from market sizes through tax and pricing regimes to content may become the main driver for digital. cultural choices – show that each market must be pre- This “Global eBook Market” study is a first step sented with its unique defining traits. towards mapping the development ahead primarily In Europe, Germany and France are ahead in digitally through actual data, and not forecasts, tapping into a embracing trade books, notably fiction, yet are clearly wide array of sources, backed up by expert interviews. behind the US and UK. But countries as diverse as Updates and close ups on additional markets are pre- Austria, Italy, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden have pared for the months and years ahead. recently seen the implementation of an ebook distribu- 1 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

The Scope and the Approach of This Report W ith ebooks having a double-digit market For each country, basic data (as available) on the share in the United States (and probably overall publishing market as well as on the share (and soon in the United Kingdom as well), potential) of ebooks will be presented, and major local several books selling more than a million and international actors will be identified. digital copies, regular digital bestseller lists popping up, The collection of data combines a wide array of and an ever-broadening availability of opportunities and recently published surveys as well as original research tool sets directed at authors and readers for creating and involving local experts and stakeholders that we could distributing ebooks, it is easy to argue that this new approach for this study, with the aim of always using the dimension of books is on an impressive growth trajec- most reliable sources we could find in a hierarchy, start- tory. By its very convenience and dynamic growth, this ing with “official” data and reports published by national model is ready to be embraced globally in the near organizations and followed by reports from other indus- future, just as was the case with other digital content via try sources (e.g., trade magazines and other research the Web, as with music, video, games, and information. organizations), market actors’ statements (e.g., number International book and reading markets are however of available titles, as shown by distributors), and finally framed by other than commercial parameters for a “others” (with sources always identified). In the following number of reasons that vary from country to country, detailed analytical examination, local and regional and this study aims to provide data and analysis on a debates on policy debates and regulatory efforts are range of markets, factors, and conditions to foster a more discussed for an overall assessment of the outlook. realistic understanding of the perspectives and potenti- The central topic of ebook piracy has been largely alities for ebooks, notably in continental Europe as well kept out of this study for the simple reason of a lack of as in several rapidly emerging countries, including Brazil, solid data. Even as first surveys are being released—most China, and Russia. recently in Germany—their approach and methodology 2 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

is at this point still subject to relevant controversy and At least in theory, ebooks can travel seamlessly pending verification, so a completely thorough assess- around the globe, distributed over the Internet through ment seems to be beyond our reach. gates opened by World Trade Organization (WTO) agree- The major markets in Europe—including Germany, ments fostering the free exchange of goods and infor- France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Netherlands, Austria, mation. In the markets’ daily workings, though, things Slovenia, and Poland—are highlighted herein. In many are much more complicated indeed. Hurdles and frag- of these countries, the book market is characterized by mentations arise from various barriers—notably tax and various regulatory and supportive policies in support of customs—but also often from the fact that distributors the publishing industry, including fixed pricing schemes are as of yet disinterested in serving smaller or more for books (as in Germany, France, or Austria) and reduced complex new markets. VAT on printed books (which, as of now, does not apply Only a few months ago, the simple wish to acquire a to ebooks, resulting in a significant market distortion digital copy of, ironically, a book on the global spread of between printed and electronic) books. Political debates English (Nicholas Ostler’s fabulous The Last Lingua on book culture also frame the markets to varying Franca, published by Penguin in the UK) led to an unex- degrees. pected odyssey. Buying an ePub version (as opposed to In the newly emerging markets, educational materi- one for Mobipocket/Kindle) of the book from online als are a driving sector for digital publishing, and this retailers in the UK (Waterstones or WHSmith) from a sector is often subject to significant government pro- computer in Vienna, Austria, turned out to be impossible, grams and policies. In China, not only a broad choice of as British retailers would not accept an overseas cus- locally developed and marketed reading devices are tomer. They would, of course, have shipped a paper copy driving developments, but also largely different habits of anywhere in the world without hesitation (with a few digital reading (and publishing), with the usage of both extra pounds charged for shipping). The same applied to smartphones and regular computers for the consump- the publisher, Penguin, despite that house being at the tion of book content. Piracy is a growing pattern in all forefront of both the globalization and the digitization of emerging ebook markets, with varying degrees of books. In the end, the purchase was possible through impact. Kobo, a new Canadian venture, which is building its A further significant distinguishing factor for all niche precisely by taking advantage of this odd mix of surveyed markets is the impact of a few powerful global challenges and future opportunities. driving forces, including the localization of the offers The goal of this study is to start a mapping process of from companies like Amazon (Kindle reader), Google international ebook markets and to provide details and Editions, Apple (iTunes), or Kobo, with their reading insights for a better understanding of those challenges devices and distribution capacities, as well as with the and opportunities. global availability of English-language reading material (which includes not only trade books but educational material and professional science, technical, and medical (STM) information as well). 3 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

English-Language and for all formats, it translates to a total net revenue for 2010 Other eBook Markets of $878 million from 114 million units sold. From October 2010 through the 2010 holiday season The following overview provides key data for the two into early 2011, ebook sales exploded month by month. leading English markets, those of the US and the UK, as a In adult fiction, ebooks accounted for 13.6 percent of the benchmark for the more in-depth representation of net revenue market share in 2010 (source: AAP/BISG, trends and developments in places where English is not data for 2010; AAP February 2011 sales report). the first language of the average reader. According to Publishers Weekly, sales of printed books dropped in the first half year of 2011 compared to the United States same period in 2010 by 10.2 percent to 307.1 million The US publishing industry and the US public have units, mostly due to ebook purchases but also to reluc- embraced new reading formats like no other nation. For tant consumers. Adult fiction was hit hardest, with a readers, ebooks came as a natural and permanent choice decrease of 25.7 percent versus the same period in 2010, in addition to printed books. Publishers have effectively according to Nielsen data. Nonfiction decreased by only responded to consumers’ fast-growing acceptance of 2.7 percent. Mass-market paperbacks showed a decrease new reading devices by constantly redefining and of 26.6 percent by sold units, with the most popular expanding new concepts of books. genres – notably romance, mystery, and science fiction The popularity of ebooks and apps is reflected by – hit hardest (source: various reports summarized by impressive growth rates. According to the latest survey Publishers Weekly, July 8, 2011). by the Association of American Publishers (AAP) and the Consumers’ attitudes as recently reported by BISG Book Industry Study Group (BISG), the total share of reflect the deep and rapid change in the industry, par- ebooks in the trade market has rocketed upward from ticularly the revenue losses of hardcover and paperback 0.6 percent in 2008 to 6.4 percent in 2010. Although that sales. number represents a small amount of the total market About 67 percent of ebook buyers said they increased their spending on ebooks this May, up from 48 United States Key indicators Values Sources, comments Book market size Publishers’ net sale revenues: Source: AAP/BISG; data for 2010 (p+e,* at consumer prices) $27.94 billion New titles per 1 million inhabitants 939 Ebook titles 950,000 Amazon claims by end of 2Q2011 to have 950,000 (available from publishers) ebook titles in their catalogue, the vast majority of which are in English Market share of ebooks 6.2% (13.6% in fiction) AAP/BISG; data for 2010 Key market parameters No price regulation. * p+e = printed and electronic 4 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

percent last September. Just over 50 percent of ebook Pricing buyers said they cut back on their purchases of printed Since a stiff confrontation in early 2010 between Amazon books in May, and 45 percent said they reduced spend- and some of its publisher clients, notably Macmillan, ing on hardcover books. retail prices for ebooks have been mostly set by the Dedicated ereaders as well as multifunctional devices publisher in what has become labeled as the “agency continued to gain in popularity this spring as the favored model” as far as the largest publishing groups are con- way to read ebooks, while computers continued to lose cerned. Many of the independent publishers stayed with ground. (Source: Book Industry Study Group’s “Consumer the earlier policy of the publisher defining only the Attitudes Toward E-Book Reading,” quoted in Publishers wholesale price, and does not interfere with the con- Weekly, August 19, 2011.) sumer price. AAP/BISG sources report that the average net unit Distribution price (ANUP) for ebooks fell in 2010. For that year, ebooks The leading actor in the ebook market,, were sold at $7.72 on average as opposed to $8.09 the also dominates the US retail market for printed books. previous year. In comparison, the average charge for More than 70 percent of ebook buyers use the store to hardcover titles is $8.72, and mass market paperbacks buy ebook titles, an increase of 60 percent over a year are sold at $4. ago. For the second quarter of 2011, Amazon reported revenue growth of 51 percent to $9.91 billion, of which Digital Textbooks $5.41 billion was in the US ($4.51 billion in Europe). In the US, a trend towards digital is picking up in the Amazon’s Kindle store currently offers 950,000 ebook educational sector and is particularly strong among titles, of which 800,000 cost $9.99 or less; 110 of the 111 institutions catering to students who attend distance titles on the bestseller list of the New York Times are learning schools, for-profit institutions, and traditional available as ebooks for the Kindle. two- and four-year-degree programs and seek added The second heavyweight player in retail, and the value. strongest competitor to Amazon, is Barnes & Noble Ingram and its subsidiary, the Vital Source Content ( or, with more than 2 Company, are at the forefront of management and million ebooks available. Although’s total rev- distribution of electronic textbooks, offering 80,000 enue increased by only 2 percent to $1.42 billion (first digital textbooks in 17 languages to 1.6 million students quarter ending July 2011), its digital content and devices and faculty at 6000 campuses in 180 countries. (Nook) segment grew 140 percent and represented 19.5 The key players in educational publishing – among percent of total sales. With an investment from Liberty them Pearson, Cengage, Elsevier, and Wolters Kluwer – Media of $204 million, Barnes and Noble announced have signed global distribution agreements with Vital plans to become the leading bookseller in the US. Source. The growing online usage of educational content stayed ahead of Apple’s iBookstore and leads to the assumption that digital textbooks will iTunes in May, with about 27 percent of ebook buyers become mainstream. Fast-expanding platforms like Vital going to, while ebook buyers using the iBook- Source will not only – in the truest sense of its company store or iTunes stayed below 10 percent (and actually fell name – play a significant role as a global providers but slightly from January). (Source: Book Industry Study also foster additional interactive features in electronic Group, May 2011; Publishers Weekly, August19, 2011.) textbooks (source: Publishing Perspectives, August 2011). 5 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Publishing and Bookselling Reinvented into a high earner (source: Publishers Weekly, May 24, The market clout of retailers such as Amazon will affect 2010). traditional publishing. Through the Kindle, the Amazon website, and other assets, Amazon has come to collect United Kingdom massive amounts of data mirroring user patterns and In its annual report for 2010, the British Publishers buying preferences, allowing further customization of Association (BPA) disclosed growing digital sales figures, the user experience. Amazon has also enhanced its demonstrating the acceleration of the digital market in portfolio by acting as a publisher through its Amazon the UK. The overall size of the digital market stands at Encore program. First examples like that of crime writer J. £180 million (British pounds), increasing by 38 percent A. Konrath and romance writer Amanda Hocking illus- from 2009. Most striking is the rapid growth of the total trate how self-publishing via Amazon Encore and Kindle consumer digital sales, which increased by 318 percent is radically changing traditional sales and marketing from £4 million to £16 million between 2009 and 2010. strategies in publishing. Midlist writer Konrath published This figure includes consumer ebooks, downloads, and his novel Shaken in October 2010, first as an ebook, audiobooks. which sold 130,000 copies by February 2011, when the Consumer sales of ebooks and downloads account novel came out in print format. Konrath’s use of Amazon for 11 percent (from 2 percent in 2009) of the British Encore turned the Amazon community with its user-gen- book market. The field leaders are still academic and erated reviews into an effective marketing channel. professional publishers, whose sales have doubled over Likewise, Hocking self-published her romances as three years, amounting to 72 percent of all digital sales. ebooks, selling them via the Kindle, allegedly at 100,000 According to the BPA, academic publishers were downloads per month. Both authors charge between involved in digital publication before trade publishers $0.99 and $2.99, with a return of about 70 percent of the mainly because many of the bigger scholarly journal list price. The large number of “copies” sold – presumably publishers are also the largest academic and professional not possible in print format – can turn a midlist author publishers. The trade side started to take off only after the opening of a localized UK Kindle store in August United Kingdom Key indicators Values Sources, comments Book market size £3.1 b* PA Statistics Yearbook 2010 (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year 151,969 PA Statistics Yearbook 2010 (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants 2,459 Ebook titles ca. 1m Ebook titles available in the UK, partly from US publishers (available from publishers) (PA Statistics Yearbook 2010) Market share of ebooks 6% 6 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

2010 and with the arrival of the Apple iPad in the UK. countries, due to printed books being defined as a (Source: Communication from the BPA for this study.) product while ebooks are considered to be a service for In Europe, the UK ebook market comes closet to that which the consumer acquires a license instead of merely of the US in size and growth because of its vibrant per- making a purchase. formance in digital publishing. According to the BPA, Retail prices vary widely, from £1.50 to that of the about 1 million ebooks are available. (It is important to printed book’s cover price. note that some of these are US-listed titles for which there are actually no UK rights.) Distribution At the forefront in digital publishing are academic According to consumer research, a comparatively high publishers Taylor and Francis (www.taylorandfrancis- penetration of ereading devices exists in the UK com-, and Springer (, Pearson pared to other European markets, with the Kindle (, Penguin (, and accounting for 14 percent, the Sony eReader 6 percent, Bloomsbury ( lead in trade pub- the Apple iPad 5 percent, and Apple iPhones 12 percent lishing. In spring 2011, Penguin reported a growth of 180 of the device market; according to the BPA, 45 percent of percent in global ebook sales against early 2010, consti- readers use their desktop or laptop computer to read tuting 14 percent of overall sales across the Penguin ebooks. Global retailers have a strong presence in the Group (21 percent in the US, and 8 percent in the UK) by British market. Amazon and Kobo run localized platforms late summer of 2011. Penguin offers nearly 6,500 ebook for the UK. titles on their website (source: Penguin company infor- The August 2010 launch of Amazon’s localized Kindle mation). Independent publisher Bloomsbury also ben- Store in the UK is perceived as a key catalyst behind the efited from the flourishing digital market and changes in rapid adoption of ebooks in the UK. Within a five-month consumer behavior. The company reported an increase period, Amazon sold close to 400,000 Kindle devices and in ebook sales from $131,000 to $2.3 million in 2010, achieved ebook sales in the region of £20 million. with ebooks sales running just under 10 percent of trade WHSmith is following Amazon’s lead by offering print sales. The success mainly derived from Man Booker customers a similar seamless reading and shopping Prize–winning novelist Howard Jacobson and the inter- experience by integrating a catalogue of 100,000 ebook national bestseller Eat, Pray, Love by Elizabeth Gilbert. titles with its preferred device, the £179 Iriver Story, There is no dedicated national ebook bestseller list which connects via Wi-Fi. The device has been available available for the UK so far, but Waterstone’s ebook best- through physical stores and online since July 2010. seller list is perceived as the unofficial industry chart The main distributors are Amazon, Overdrive, and the ( Also, FutureBook (www.future- EBL ebook Library (source: British Publishers Association, includes ebook charts for Amazon and Apple’s FutureBooks). iTunes store (source: British Publishers Association). Pricing No regulation exists with regard to pricing. Although printed books are exempt from VAT, ebooks are subject to a 20 percent surcharge in the form of a Value-Added Tax (VAT), as are audiobooks, even when bundled with a printed book. This distinction is, as in other European 7 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Market Close-ups Available Titles In a subset of the survey, based on a questionnaire Germany answered by 437 publishing professionals in January Various media reports in summer 2011 estimated that in 2011, revenues from ebooks accounted for 5.4 percent of Germany, ebooks currently account for about 1 percent publishers’ revenues, with projections for this value of the book market. In March 2011, Börsenverein (the growing to 6.6 percent in 2011 and 16.2 percent in 2012. German Publishers’ and Booksellers’ Association) Meanwhile, a panel of 394 retailers surveyed expected released a study based on a 2010 survey by the market ebooks to represent 1.9 percent of sales in 2011 and 9.2 research firm GfK , identifying an ebook market worth percent of sales in 2015. €21.2 million for 2010 or 0.5 percent of the market of An estimated 25,000 trade titles are available through book consumers (which obviously refers to the esti- the various commercial retail platforms, such as ePub, mated share of books bought by readers in retail). In PDF, or Amazon’s Mobipocket, with DRM and a retail 2010, 2 million ebooks were sold to 540,000 ebook price. Libri, Germany’s largest wholesaler of printed consumers, according to the study. books and a strong player in digital distribution, claims 80,000 available titles. The total number includes various titles without DRM, free books, and self-published (e.g., academic) publications in various formats. Several of the leading publishing groups – notably Random House, the Holtzbrinck imprints (Rowohlt, S. Fischer, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, and Droemer Knaur), and Lübbe – are releasing and promoting most of their new titles as ebooks alongside print. Germany Key indicators Values Sources, comments Book market size €9,691 m* Source: Börsenverein (Publishers and Booksellers’ Association), (p+e, at consumer prices) 2009. Titles published per year 93,124 Source: Börsenverein (Publishers and Booksellers’ Association), (new and successive editions) 2009. New titles per 1 m inhabitants 1,138 Ebook titles ca. 25,000 Estimated ebook (trade) titles with DRM and a retail price, (available from publishers) available through various retail channels. Amazon has announced 40,000 German titles by summer 2011; Libreka has 25,000 commercial German language titles, wholesaler Libri estimates available commercial titles in German at 80,000; titles from other platforms than Amazon are a mix of ePub (for most trade books) and PDF. Market share of ebooks 1% Estimate (2010): 0.5%. (Source: Börsenverein/GfK, March 2011.) Key market parameters Fixed book price for printed books; Börsenverein lobbying for extending fixed pricing to ebooks. VAT 7% for print, 19% for ebooks 8 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Pricing Libreka ( is a platform launched by Ebooks are generally sold at a retail price that is only Börsenverein in 2006, offering ebooks since 2009 and about 20 percent lower than the lowest-priced printed with a current (August 2011) catalog of about 80,000 edition. ebook titles, of which 28,000 are in German (including The trade association Börsenverein, which is strongly about 25,000 “commercial” ebooks, marketed by publish- lobbying to extend the German regulatory framework of ers, 43,699 of which are in English and 1,833 of which are fixed book retail prices to ebooks. Another major con- in French). Libreka claims to be the largest German cern is that under European policies, the reduced VAT distributor of ebooks. Owned and run by Börsenverein, rate of 7 percent on books cannot be applied to ebooks, Libreka has recently announced several partnerships – as they – being categorized as a service, not a product – such as with Kobo, in July 2011 – to position itself as a fall under the normal rate of 19 percent. link between retail platforms and publishers, thereby According to the Börsenverein study, 35 percent of strengthening its strategic position after facing internal German publishers currently release ebooks, with a clear challenges, notably from domestic wholesalers, over lead by large houses (67 percent) and a significantly competition issues. more cautious approach from medium-sized publishers Libri (, the largest wholesaler for printed (44 percent) and small publishers (28 percent). An esti- books – and claiming to be the lead seller of ebooks – mated 40 percent of new titles are released – usually offers a catalog of 450,000 ebook titles as of June 2011 simultaneously – as ebooks alongside print. (Buchreport), which includes a majority of titles in other Several of the largest publishing groups are actively languages than German and 80,000 titles in German. promoting direct downloads from their corporate web- Ciando ( is an independent retail sites; for instance, Random House, with 4,000 (or 25 platform for ebooks, currently with 220,000 available percent) of its titles available as ebooks, has announced titles from about 600 publishing houses, including both 750,000 ebook downloads for 2010 (Börsenblatt, March independent (e.g., Hanser, Campus) and corporate (e.g., 2011 – a sevenfold increase versus 2009). Random House, the Bonnier group) as well as interna- tional (e.g., Pearson Education, Wiley, O’Reilly) publishers. Distribution Textr ( offers a broad range of distri- A number of domestic actors compete – and cooperate bution services on various platforms, notably for retail- – in the distribution of ebooks. Among the leading ers, usually under the their customers’ brands. In 2011, global actors, Amazon was the first to launch a dedicated Textr won an investment from 3M to extend their inter- German website for its Kindle reader in April 2011, with national strategy. 40,000 commercial (or copyrighted) German-language Bookwire ( – not to be confused ebook titles available by summer 2011 (and almost 1 with, a service of the US biblio- million titles overall). Kobo followed in July 2011 and also graphical service Bowker), is a Frankfurt-based startup announced a collaboration with Libreka. As a rule of offering small- to medium-sized companies, in particular, thumb, almost all commercially distributed titles come easy access to the ebook market. with DRM, with only some rare limited experiments with KN Digital (, a branch of the dis- social DRM (e.g., watermarking). As file formats, ebooks tributor KNA, is a “full-service provider for digital media” are predominately offered as PDF or ePub, except those (source: company statement), which includes digital for Amazon’s Kindle, which are in Mobipocket. distribution, ecommerce solutions, print on demand, 9 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

conversion, digital warehousing (or hosting), and emar- Expectations of consumers in 2010 pointed to a keting. KNA has provided these respective services for coexistence of ebooks and printed books (48 percent printed books to a broad customer base for many very likely, 42 percent likely), according to a decades, particularly for various small and medium-sized PricewaterhouseCoopers report ( publishing houses. KN Digital announced the launch of gx/en/global-entertainment-media-outlook). A GfK their proprietary ereading device in September 2011. study on a panel of publishing professionals showed that Skoobe ( is a consortium led by 83 percent expected tablet computers to become rel- Bertelsmann and Holtzbrinck that launched an ebook evant reading devices, as compared to 68 percent for distribution platform, announced in late 2010, following laptops and PCs, 55 percent for smartphones, and 54 the model of similar initiatives in France, Italy, and Spain. percent for dedicated reading devices (source: a compi- The online and brick and mortar retail chain Weltbild lation of various reports by Statista, ( ( has positioned itself as a forerunner themen/658/e-reader). for a multichannel strategy, with its own reading device In August 2011, an online questionnaire issued by a and 100,000 ebook titles currently available, claiming the reading platform ( and resulting in a panel of “largest popular German-language ebook offerings” and 777 submissions found a market share of 25 percent for announcing the creation of a strategic Digital Products the Sony eReader; 18 percent for the Kindle; remarkably, department in July 2011. a mere 8 percent reading on an Apple iPad; and 3 per- Weltbild’s main competitor, retail chain Thalia (www. cent for the Apple iPhone., also launched its own reading device, the Oyo, By the end of 2011, 1.5 million tablet devices are in fall 2010 in support of a “multichannel” strategy. The expected to be sold in Germany, but ereaders also show Oyo is manufactured by Medion, a German manufac- solid growth (33 percent since 2010) according to a joint turer of discount entertainment and PC hardware. statement of Frankfurt Book Fair and the professional association of the digital industry BITKOM released in Reading Devices August 2011. Sales of ereaders are expected to be worth In March 2011 (one month before the launch of a local- €31 million by the end of 2011; for tablets, expected ized German Amazon Kindle shop), a media-control worth is €770 million. survey found that 450,000 ebook reading devices had The growing importance attributed to the German been sold in Germany, with consumers preferring it to ebook market is clearly mirrored in Amazon’s decision, at the printed book, as it is smaller and lighter to carry than the launch of a new generation of devices on September a printed book (54.3 percent); 50.6 percent considered it 28, 2011, to include a German localized version with a an advantage to buy books for direct download at home. German navigation and pricing (at €99.00), to coincide According to a GfK study, in January 2011, the Sony with the US launch. eReader, with a market share of 35 percent, was leading the market for devices in Germany, followed by the Kindle at 11 percent (yet it should be noted that at time of writing, Amazon has not yet launched a dedicated German Kindle shop with a dedicated German-language title list), and the Oyo (manufactured by Medion and marketed by retail chain Thalia) at 8 percent. 10 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Analysis With such a strong focus on defensive measures, With 78 percent of Germans claiming to not want to read incentives were very limited for publishers to invest in from a screen, and 85 percent “loving printed books too digital initiatives and to release (and promote) their most much, and a device not providing the same reading attractive new titles in digital formats. The traditional experience,” ebooks at this point have a difficult stand strong consensus over the “cultural value” of books against a cultural tradition that places (printed) books helped in adapting the pricing framework to ebooks, and reading high on the scale for defining a person’s resulting in very modest discounts of ebooks over cultural identity. Although those indicators are going printed editions, thereby introducing a considerable down continuously (“not reading from a screen” from 83 hurdle for early adopters of ebooks, who – with other percent in 2009; “loving printed books too much” from digital content such as music or movies – were used to a 88 percent in 2009), the Börsenverein study concludes much lower pricing standard than that offered with that overall acceptance of ebooks has not improved books. Even though no regulation on ebook pricing recently. exists at this point, all market actors and platforms infor- Looking back at public and expert debates on ebooks mally sell their new releases at the price set by the over the past several years, a number of elements and publishers. parameters framing both the debate and the landscape However, this situation can change quickly; several come into view. factors make for a more complex perspective in the For over a decade, German book professionals – future, as the penetration of digital reading devices and including both publishers and retailers, led by their tablets is showing significant growth and the reading association, Börsenverein – strongly positioned the audience is getting accustomed to a book title coming in “book” and “reading” as a key cultural practice, consid- various formats – increasingly often including an English ered to be under pressure from various changes. The edition – each with a different retail price. Since the initial campaign aimed to defend the principle of the launch of a German Kindle store by Amazon (their first fixed book price against various discounting models. In a non-English platform) in spring 2011 and with Apple subsequent move, the established broad cultural con- working on improving its iBook offerings and working sensus was mobilized again, starting around 2007, in an with Google Editions to localize and make these avail- outcry against Google’s digitization of copyrighted works able in Germany as well, these powerful global brands in (initially, primarily US) libraries and also (to a lesser are expected to have a significant impact on German degree) lobbying against policies favoring “open access” readers in the near future. publishing models for publicly funded research. Libreka, to quote just one example, expects ebooks Compared to the US, no significant market (or con- to have a market share of 15 percent by 2015, hence sumer) pressure came from the retail or device side, as playing a major role for the future of the publishing Amazon’s Kindle and the attached catalog of available industry with a massive impact on all actors and ele- titles was, in theory, open to German readers from 2009, ments of the value chain. yet offered almost exclusively English-language books. Not until fall 2010 did two major domestic retail chains – Thalia and Weltbild – launch their own reading devices in time for the holiday season, with initial limited success. 11 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

France A recent study on the legal and illegal availability of In early 2011, the market share of ebooks in France was ebooks in France (, May 2011), based on a estimated at 0.5 percent, with sales of €13 million annu- broad panel of bestselling titles from various genres ally (SNE/The Bookseller). In July, the Syndicat National de (trade, children, graphic novels), found that overall, 35.3 l’Edition (SNE) claims an ebook market share of 1.8 percent of the surveyed titles were available as ebooks percent, or sales of €54 million for the preceding year. on legal platforms (versus 17.3 percent in 2010) and However, as Antoine Gallimard, president of SNE and roughly the same percentage (36 percent) were on publisher of Gallimard, pointed out, there is “a real gap illegal sites (versus 27.9 percent in 2010). Roughly half of between the fascination for digitisation and its commer- the surveyed trade books (fiction and nonfiction) were cial reality.” (, July 1, 2011.) legally available as ebooks in 2011 (versus 36.6 percent In July 2011, a GfK survey (based on a panel of 1,000 for fiction and 13.3 percent of nonfiction in 2010). Internet users) showed that 52 percent of all ebook Around 86 percent of the legal trade ebooks came in downloads occurred from public libraries (notably the ePub format. The researchers understand the illegal French National Library and the related French public offers as direct competition to the legal catalogs, with platform Gallica, but also from Google Books) and that the legal catalogs rising in prominence against the illegal 41 percent of all downloads resulted from (domestic) sites. online retail platforms (notably Fnac,, The average retail price for ebooks, according to the or In addition, 77 percent of all downloads LeMotif study, was €12.2 (€13.6 when BD – “bande have been for free-of-charge ebooks, and 27 percent dessinée,” or graphic novels and comic books –were came from pirate sites. excluded). The French publishing market environment is stable, A VAT of 19.5 percent means that ebooks are discrimi- yet flat, with growth of 3 percent in 2010 in publishing nated against versus printed books (with a VAT of 5.5 revenues yet a decline of 2.7 percent in sold copies. percent), as is the case in all European countries with France Key indicators Values Sources, comments Book market size  €5,600 m 2009 estimate, based on SNE* data for publishers’ annual (p+e, at consumer prices) revenues. Titles published per year  66,595  SNE (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  1,064   Ebook titles  ca. 22,000 French titles on Numilog. 70,000 titles available, including (available from publishers) 10,000 free and public domain. Market share of ebooks 1.8%  SNE, July 2011 Key market parameters Fixed book price; VAT of 5.5% on printed   books versus 19.5% on ebooks 12 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

reduced VAT rates for books. However, Jacques Toubon, also dropped their charges against Google, at least for as an ambassador at large for the French government, is the moment (source: Livres Hebdo, September 7, 2011). currently negotiating with the European Commission Overall, France has kept a high profile in opposing over extending the reduced VAT to e-books and, in a Google’s library digitization of copyrighted works and communication on September 28, 2011, said he was the proposed Google settlement. To also strengthen convinced that such a regulation will be effective by copyright nationally, respective legislation to protect January 1st, 2012. (Livres Hebdo, Septmber 29, 2011) rights on the Internet (Loi Hadopi, based on the creation of a “Haute autorité pour la diffusion des oeuvres et la Political and Cultural Context for eBooks in France protection des droits sur internet”) was introduced in The ebook (or “livre numérique”) faces a tough as well as 2009. Strong regulatory efforts are also directed at the complex environment in France, characterized by various emerging ebook market, especially by the initially con- critical factors from politics, culture, and trade. troversial introduction of legislation to extend the fixed On the one hand, France – through its National price system from printed books to ebooks in early 2011. Library ( and its national digital library Gallica Defending a diversified cultural infrastructure – nota- (, with currently 1.5 million digital docu- bly, a tightly knit network of bookstores – resonates in ments on display) – has gotten an early start on the various and continuous media reports and political digitization of its cultura. France also has a strong tradi- activism aiming at curtailing a supposed negative tion of national politics spearheading the digital dissemi- impact from both online sales of books and the emer- nation of its legacy, and of creating institutional gence of ebooks, which is seen as an imminent threat to frameworks for such ambitions, including the European smaller libraries. For example, in July 2011, bestselling digital library project Europeana ( author Frédéric Martel spoke out in a strongly worded On the other hand, industry representatives – led by article in a popular weekly (Marianne, July 17, 2011) the industry trade association SNE, together with the against the – in his view – likely outlook that up to 50 French government – regularly stand up to defend percent of bookshops might disappear and the foresee- French culture and its national book industry against able repercussions for publishers alongside that rupture; what are seen as threats from global market forces and the editorial director of the notable publisher Editions players. This controversy – which was fostered by Stock, Jean-Marc Roberts, in a TV interview (Europe 1, Hachette Livres, among others, from the very beginning quoted in, August 17, 2011), bluntly – did not however hinder the largest publishing group proposed allowing the sale of books through brick-and- by far in France from actively seeking Google’s coopera- mortar bookstores only, banning online retailers from tion in digitizing its vast catalog of up to 50,000 titles – or distributing books altogether. 70 percent of the group’s backlist – in a landmark agree- ment that was approved by mid 2011, despite significant Distributors opposition from some other French publishers involved At this point, none of the global actors has actively in the opposition of the Google settlement. In August entered the French ebook market, and online book sales 2011, publisher La Martinière also signed a digitization are dominated by local platforms, notably Fnac (www. agreement with Google, and in September 2011, Albin Amazon operates a dedicated French-language Michel, Flammarion, and Gallimard (whose publisher, online retail platform, and a localized Kindle store is Antoine Gallimard, is also president of the French SNE) expected to open in fall 2011, as are localized platforms from Kobo and Google Editions. 13 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

The French book industry has a long tradition of Fnac (, founded in 1954, is the largest leading publishers also owning significant distribution chain bookstore, also selling music and movies in France, operations, and from the very beginning, this tradition with revenues of €4473 million. Fnac has further ven- has shaped the distribution of ebooks as well. tures in Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, Greece, Italy, The current market leader is Numilog (www.numilog. Portugal, Taiwan, and Brazil. Fnac offers a catalog of com), launched in 2000 and owned by Hachette since 82,000 ebooks (with no breakdown available for the 2008, which claims to be the “reference library” for percentage of French titles), of which 75 percent are in ebooks in France, with 34,000 commercial titles and PDF format and the rest primarily in ePub. Fnac intro- 130,000 free books available, of which 22,000 are sup- duced its own dedicated ereader, the FnacBook, in posedly French titles. Similar to the German market, October 2010. In 2010, hosted 120,000 ebook most ebooks are offered in PDF or ePub formats. downloads (versus 60,000 in 2009), with 130,000 in the Eden-Livres ( is a joint venture of first quarter 2011 alone – half of which, however, were the independent publishing houses Gallimard, La free titles (LeMotif ). Martinière/LeSeuil, and Flammarion, offering a catalog of Digibidi ( is a service specializing 5,000 titles in various formats. in the distribution of the particularly popular genre of BD Epagine ( – which has also a Dutch (graphic novels and comic books), offering the catalogs branch, – is a general solutions provider of 30 publishers. founded in 2008 for (at this point) 177 publishers and Bookeen ( is, according to one of bookshops specializing in ebooks. its founders, Laurent Picard, “primarily a site for book Eplateforme is a hub controlled by the publishing lovers. A 100 percent digital library where the Internet arms of Editis, Média Participations, and Michelin (see user can be well served,” with a current catalog of 42,700, as well of which 1,300 are free of charge and without DRM, the as others including works published by Gallimard, The catalogs of the three largest distribution plat- Flammarion, P.O.L., Bragelonne, and The two forms – Numilog, Eden Livres, and Eplateforme – have largest French publishing groups with their digital plat- been integrated since May 2010. forms are “the big voids” (company statement). Bookeen 1001Libraires ( is a collective was founded in 2003, after the first enthusiasm in elec- effort launched in April 2011 by the Syndicat de la tronic reading devices had just collapsed, and produces Librairie Française (SLF) to facilitate the online presence its own reading device. In summer 2011, Bookeen for its members, offering a catalog of about 1 million opened its digital library to ereading printed titles and 80,000 ebooks. Currently, 100 indepen- devices other than its own. dent booksellers have participating websites. A specialty in French ebook publishing is the particu- 1001Libraires’ list of customers includes Editis, the sec- larly strong culture and fan base for both domestic ond largest publishing group, which is owned by comics – notably Japanese manga, as well as other Spanish Grupo Planeta. graphic novels, which are also forming a digital niche market – with platforms like (and its German spinoff, 14 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Spain In this environment, ebooks are a new niche seg- The Spanish publishing market – and, as a consequence, ment, which as recently as 2009 was considered more of the ebook market in Spain – are shaped by several para- a perspective for future developments than a present doxical parameters. With a population of 47 million reality. The report “La digitalización del libro en España,” inhabitants, Spain is a medium-sized European market, released in November 2009 ( closer to Poland than to Germany, for example. Yet talizacion_del_libro_en_espana-rec-f1060.htm), argued Spanish is the first language for 650 million people that “the digitization of books will be one of the most worldwide, including a significant number of Spanish strategic decisions that publishers will have to make in speakers in the US. Spanish publishing revenues were the next years,” yet, the report also notes that paper and strained most recently by shrinking value at consumer electronic will coexist in the future (“The emergence of prices of about 7 percent, from €3110 million in 2009 to ebooks in Spain,” Emerald Group Publishing LTD, 2010). €2680 million in 2010, with more titles published than Almost half of the polled publishers for this study ever (80,000 in 2010) but each selling fewer copies than expected that even by 2020, print would still be their before. Yet most of Latin America is served by Spanish main source of income. Another report, by the publishing enterprises, and exports grew by 3.69 percent Federación de Gremios de Editores in collaboration with to €458 million in 2010, of which €108 million worth of the Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruiperez and published books went to France. Exports to the US meanwhile in February 2010, polled 254 publishers, of whom 80 stayed at modest levels (€18 million in 2005). The domes- percent planned “actions in the digital area during the tic publishing sector, though populated by small and period of 2009 to 2011,” including parts of their backlist, medium-sized publishing houses, is increasingly defined with 19 percent expecting to have their full catalogue of by three big groups: Planeta, Santillana, and Random titles digitized by the end of 2011. According to that House/Mondadori. report, small publishers showed – at that moment, at Spain Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €2,890 m  2010 (Publishers Association FGEE) (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  80,000  2010 (Publishers Association FGEE) (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  ca. 1,700   Ebook titles  10,000   (available from publishers) Market share of ebooks 1% (trade); 2.4% (incl. STM, et al.) FGEE (Sept. 2011); otherwise estimated at 1% 15 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

least – a higher predisposition to digitizing their backlists ebook titles, including Maeva ( and Roca than the market leaders; even by 2011, the large groups ( have implemented considerable efforts in that respect as For online retail direct to readers, the strongest well, offering growing digital catalogs of their titles. brands are Casa del Libro, with its dedicated ebook In 2009, an effort to digitize major works occurred in section (, offering a cur- both Spanish and Latin American literature under the rent catalogue of 4458 titles and an estimated market headline of “Palabras Mayores,” of which first selections share in ebooks of 45 percent); the Spanish branch of are indeed commercially available in the digital formats French retailer Fnac (with its own ebook bestseller chart both Mobipocket and ePub, with DRM, at the platform and an estimated market share of 25 percent for ebooks), Leer ( as well as El Corte Inglés (, Europe’s palabras-mayores). largest general retailer, whose online offerings include a The first emergence of an ebook market, however, media section with books and music, with an estimated can be dated to 2010, with the launch of the dedicated market share of ebooks at around 20 percent. B2B (business to business) ebook distribution platform Amazon opened its localized Spanish platform (www. Libranda ( The venture is an initiative, the fifth of its kind in Europe and the eighth of a consortium of the three largest publishing groups, worldwide, on September 14, 2011, with a catalogue of Planeta, Santillana, and Random House/Mondadori, with about 300,000 titles in the Spanish language; a Spanish 15 publishers initially contributing titles and 8 online Kindle shop is expected to follow before the end of 2011, stores serving the consumers. Libranda distributes titles triggering immediate strong concerns, notably by the in ePub format with Adobe DRM protection. By the end publishers’ association FGEE, about Amazon’s future of 2010, Libranda had signed up digital content from 23 compliance with the Spanish legislation on regulated publishers and 98 imprints, representing more than half prices for both printed and electronic books, which of the Spanish book market, plus distribution agree- Amazon acknowledges. (See El Pais, September 15, 2011, ments with 56 retailers in Spain and an “indirect distribu- for the FGEE concerns; tion agreement” with Barnes & Noble (US). By September clave/libro/texto/reino/precio/fijo/ 2011, Libranda’s catalogue contained 5133 titles alto- elpepicul/20110915elpepicul_2/Tes, and for Amazon’s gether and was predicted to expand to 10,000 titles by reply, see the end of 2011. espanoles/muestran/aprensivos/mundo/digital/ Though Libranda, as a B2B ebook distribution plat- elpepicul/20110915elpepicul_1/Tes). form, is estimated to own 60 percent of the Spanish Other market players from outside the book trade are ebook market, several other ventures have launched expected to look for their piece of the ebook pie as well, services, notably Publidisa (; esti- notably powerful Spanish telecommunications group mated market share of 20 percent), Leqtor (www.leqtor. Telefonica, which introduced its own dedicated reading com; 15 percent), and Amabook (, a device called Movistar Ebook bq at the retail price of platform with specifically strong ties to several Latin €169 and a Movistar eBook store in the cloud in June American markets, including Mexico, Argentina, Chile, 2011. and Colombia; 5 percent). At this point, exports of ebooks – to Latin America, as In addition to the three publishing conglomerates well as to the US – have not gained relevance but are that initiated Libranda, several more are proposing expected to grow. By June 2011, Libranda started opera- tions in Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, and Chile. On the 16 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

other hand, plans exist to include English titles in the Ebooks are expected to have a major impact for both Libranda catalogue. publishers and retailers by 2015, with a market share of About 80,000 to 100,000 ereaders and 30,000 to around 15 percent, yet on a curve rising initially only 50,000 tablets (as reading devices) had been sold by year slowly and with many book professionals considered to end of 2010, according to estimates by Libranda, grow- be rather skeptical in their anticipation of the market ing to an estimated 300,000 ereaders and 150,000 tab- developments ahead. lets by late summer 2011, with the Sony eReader (at 60,000 units) and Kindle (at 40,000 units) being prevalent Italy in electronic ink devices and iPads, at 100,000 units, Although still in its infancy, with a market share of 1.5 strongest in tablets. percent expected for 2011, the Italian ebook market Two important regulatory parameters frame the seems to be characterized by a positive anticipation of current market situation for ebooks. On the one hand, modernity, with nevertheless modest projections for its the reduced VAT rate of 4 percent for printed books is not imminent growth potential (bringing the market share of applied to ebooks, which are sold at 18 percent of VAT, ebooks to 3 percent in 2012 and 5 to 7 percent in 2015, being defined by European legislation as a service with a according to one of the main actors, the distribution license, not a retail price. However, a debate has been consortium eDigita). This small market share may also started with the aim of applying the reduced VAT to explain why the critical debate on ebooks as a disruptive ebooks as well. On the other hand, the “Ley del Libro” (or force to the traditional publishing industry is barely “Law on Books”) proposes a fixed retail price for books echoed in the professional milieus of Milan or Rome. set by the publisher and, as its definition of the book is Publisher Carlo Feltrinelli set the tone when, at the based on content, not format, is understood to apply launch of the first ebook distribution platform, eDigita, also to ebooks similar to as the new book price legisla- he stated that of course publishers had a strong interest tion introduced in France in 2011. in defending the printed book but the ebook “is a reality, On average, ebooks sell at a price that is 30 to 35 and even if readers are not ready for them as of now, percent less than the printed edition of a title. they will be so within a few years” (interview with Corriere della Sera, May 19, 2010). Italy Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €3,408 million  Publishers Association (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  58,829  Publishers Association (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  977   Ebook titles 10,000 (commercial and free by end of 2011)   (available from publishers) 17 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

2010 saw the start of major organizational and logis- branded eDigita (, which claims to offer a tics initiatives, with several distribution and retail plat- solution “from publishers to publishers, for the emer- forms put in place, leading in 2011 to a significant gence and development of books in digital formats.” extension of the ebook catalogs: 10,000 ebooks in Italian eDigita serves a broad selection of Italian online retailers, are expected to be available by the end of 2011, with all including Mondadori’s site. In its announcement, the major publishing groups embracing the new format eDigita stated that it expected the Italian ebook market and the national showcase of the Torino spring book fair, to grow to a volume of €60 to €70 million by 2015. dedicating educational and promotional programs to the cause. Mondadori (and Telecom Italia) Almost all commercially released ebooks come with Mondadori, Italy’s largest publishing group, set off DRM protection. Retail prices of ebooks are between 20 another strong spark under the emerging market by and 30 percent below that of a printed edition, with announcing a distribution agreement with Italy’s publishers strongly in favor of the “agency model,” which Telecom as early as October 2010, with Telecom and its allows the publisher, not the retailer, to exercise control ebook store Biblet (, adding some initial over the price, in an environment of limited price regula- 1,200 titles from Mondadori imprints (800 backlist plus tion. As in most European countries, there is a hefty 400 new titles, from Mondadori, Einaudi, Sperling & difference between the VAT applied to printed books (4 Kupfer, and Piemme). Biblet offers ebooks in ePub and percent) and to ebooks (20 percent). PDF format, with DRM protection. With retail prices The most ambitious publishers in the segment of under €12 to €14 for many trade titles, and many offers ebooks are Mondadori , GeMS , Rizzoli, and Feltrinelli. even lower, the venture shows a remarkably competitive Piracy is at this point not (yet) considered a major approach to pricing. In May 2011, another agreement issue, nor are imports of foreign language books or was announced, allying Mondadori with Vodafone Italy exports of Italian books internationally. for the creation of a “digital tablet kiosk.” With Italians being strong and early adopters of Apple’s iPad (report- Distribution edly 300,000 units were sold in Italy by October 2010, Amazon opened a localized online platform for Italy in according to the online journal Publishing Perspective spring 2011, and an Italian-language Kindle store is (October 2010), the open question of reading platforms expected to follow by the end of 2011, as is a localized – between tablets and E Ink–based reading devices – is Kobo site. crucial for Mondadori, which has significant revenues from magazines and newspapers as well as book eDigita publishing. Three publishing companies – GeMS/Messaggerie, Rcs, From a consumer’s point of view, the main online and Feltrinelli, representing a combined market share of stores for ebooks are (which is part of the about 30 percent of Italian trade publishing – took the Messagerie/GeMS group), Mondadori’s, and first initiative in May 2010 and joined forces to create a, as well as several others, including www. consortium platform for the distribution of ebooks, and 18 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Sweden One important factor is supposedly the absence thus Recently, the Swedish book market has come under far of direct pressure from major global players, notably pressure, with a decrease in January through August Amazon, from the Swedish market. Local online plat- 2011 of –5% versus 2010. As this decrease is expected to forms prevail instead, with Adlibris as the market leader continue through the end of 2011, this would be the (, owned by the country’s largest fourth year of continuously dropping sales, a trend not publishing group Bonnier, followed by Bokus (www. seen since the 1970s, according to the Swedish, owned by the Swedish KF (or “Coop” group, Publishers Association (quoted from Svensk Bokhandel, September 2011). The publishing and the book selling arm of KF, In Sweden, as in the other Nordic countries, the Akademibokhandeln (which is also linked, through the ebook market is only emerging. Ebook sales have hardly umbrella of KF, to Norstadts Publishing), and Bokus were any market share so far, and their growth has so far been also first movers as they launched their Dito (www.dito. challenged by uncertainty about most key parameters, se) service at the Gothenberg book fair in September including pricing and availability, as well by factors as a 2011; it will include, according to press releases, a wide VAT of 25 percent discriminating ebooks against printed range of ebook titles, ereaders (from Samsung, Dell, and editions selling with a VAT of only 6 percent. Sony), as well as – instead of a proprietary platform The gap in ebook development between Sweden – reading and purchasing apps for ebooks on Android as – particularly the English-language markets – is even well as Apple devices. At launch, Dito is expected to offer more remarkable, given Sweden’s significantly high 5,400 titles in Swedish as well as between 75,000 and Internet penetration and the affinity of Swedish consum- 100,000 titles in English, in “all formats,” according to the ers to broadly embrace digital offers. As a result, observ- KF release (quoted in Svensk Bokhandel, September 11, ers expect the ebook market to take off quickly after the 2011, major initiatives launching in the second half of 2011. kf-media-f-rst-ut-med-stor-e-bokssatsning). Sweden Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  Publishers’ net revenues: Publishers’ annual revenues (Publishers Association) (p+e, at consumer prices) ca. 2,492 m SEK* Titles published per year  4,077  Publishers Association (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  463 Ebook titles 4,800 (available from publishers) Market share of ebooks Ebooks only starting on the market   Key market parameters Most ebook titles without DRM; no price   regulation; 6% VAT for printed books; 25% for ebooks 19 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Out of all other major distributors catering to major Piracy is an issue, if at all, only for the Swedish European markets, Dito is currently alone in distributing Publishers Association and its lobbying policies so far. watermarked ePub files and will soon add watermarked PDF files. For the broader commercial release later this Netherlands year, Dito will offer support for DRM-protected ePub and In a PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) survey carried out PDF files; the distribution of Mobipocket or Kindle for- among consumers and experts from the publishing mats will not be available. industry in 2010, consumers in the Netherlands showed little interest in ebooks and ereaders. In addition, iPads Distribution and other tablets had little use as reading devices. The Scandinavia’s largest ebook distributor is Elib (www.elib. ebook market in the Netherlands shows similar charac- se), founded in 2000 and owned by the Swedish publish- teristics to that of Germany, with a conservative ing companies Bonnier, Natur & Kultur, Norstedts (of the approach to digital publishing outside of STM. In public KF group), and Piratförlaget. This producer and distribu- professional debates, the threats – rather than the tor currently distributes about 50,000 digital books per opportunities – are highlighted, such as the risk of sales month to major retailers and libraries in Denmark, losses of printed books. Sweden, Norway, and Finland. In 2009, consumers in the Netherlands spent €1 Elib’s competitor is the smaller, independent platform million on ebooks – a marginal percentage of the coun- Publit ( try’s book market. Bonnier’s online bookselling platform Adlibris However, the situation has changed since then. The launched a reading device in 2010: Letto. So far, domes- trade magazine Boekblad recently reported that as many tic ebooks have been mostly without DRM, yet it is ebooks were sold in the Netherlands in the first half of unclear what the respective policy will be in the new 2011 as were sold in 2010 altogether. For January Dito environment. through June 2011, ebook sales totaled €3.4 million, with A localized Kobo platform for Sweden is expected for about 327,000 units sold. In the light of the PwC survey, 2012. and considering the fact that the Dutch ebook market Netherlands Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €1,168 m  Publishers Association (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  21,337  Publishers Association (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  1,293   Ebook titles  5,000  Estimated, based on BOL/Textr releases (available from publishers) Market share of ebooks 1.2%  Boekblad;  2010: 0.3% (PwC study 2010) 20 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

started out with only a small supply of available domes- Pricing tic titles and lacking the marketing power of a global In the Netherlands, as in Germany or Spain, bookstores player like Amazon, these figures demonstrate an must follow the price defined by the publisher because impressive growth. of fixed book price arrangements. The fixed book price Further expansion of the ebook market will have the arrangement in Germany is not subject to any time advantage of a reading audience that has heavily restriction, whereas the corresponding arrangement in embraced printed books in English already. the Netherlands is applicable for only the first year after he publication of printed and digital books. Distributors As in most other European markets, a VAT of 6 per- Online media store BOL ( serves over 2.7 million cent is an advantage for printed books versus ebooks (at customers, which makes it the market leader in the a VAT of 19 percent) (sources: Boekblad; online selling of media products and the largest online PricewaterhouseCoopers 2010). media shop of the Netherlands. The store has a cata- logue of over 3.8 million products. As for ebooks, BOL Austria has partnered with German distributor Txtr (www.txtr. The case of Austria is a good example for a relatively com) since 2010. small market neighboring a much larger territory and a French-founded B2B distribution platform ePagine market of the same language. With a population of ( also operates a Dutch platform (www. about 8 million, Austria is roughly 10 percent of the size serving a broad list of publishers, including of Germany in all major relevant respects for this study Artemis, Athenaeum, Kluwer, and Querido and retailers and shares both the vernacular and, largely, the current and wholesalers Boekhuis and Luisterhuis, as well as cultural and media framework of its dominating neigh- ePagine itself and the British Gardners Books. bor. Both countries are members of the European Union and the euro zone. Reading Devices Yet, with regard to printed books, books from In the Netherlands, iRex Technologies, a spinoff of German publishers already reign supreme in Austrian Philips, introduced ereaders at the end of 2008 and book shops, namely the chain stores as well as the online reported sales of just over 4,000 units by the end of 2009. platforms of Amazon, Thalia (, and Weltbild Sales rose to 50,000 ereaders by midyear 2010, but this (, serving the Austrian market from was not enough to save iRex from filing for bankruptcy headquarters in Germany. Amazon also serves Austria protection in June 2010. from its German Kindle store, which opened a localized Several other ereader manufacturers have filed for version in April 2011. Although local Austrian bestselling bankruptcy protection as well, including the manufac- lists show, as would be expected, significant differences turer of the Cool-er ereader (www.coolerebookreader. from locally branded authors (e.g., local celebrities as and the European division of Foxit. well as local literary talent), the overall pattern and a In the meantime, a number of ereaders are available share of roughly two-thirds of those charts are very that have the capability to integrate with online stores. similar to those in Germany (for details, see Diversity For example, offers readers with Wi-Fi capabili- Report 2010 at ties, among them the Sony eReader and the BeBook Neo, On the other hand, local Austrian publishers have which was developed in the Netherlands. always confronted substantial hurdles to bringing their books to retailers, to media, and hence to consumers in 21 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Germany, where Austrian imports account for only about A first survey on the Austrian ebook market, released 3 percent (not, as expected by the equivalents in size, on September 29, 2011, by the Austrian publishers’ and around 10 percent), and in recent years, this imbalance booksellers’ association (HVB – see http://www.buecher. seems to have increased somewhat. at/rte/upload/pdf/e-book-studie_lang.pdf ) showed that The Austrian debate on ebooks has been largely just 17 percent of Austrian publishers have sold ebooks shaped by Hauptverband des österreichischen as of 2010, and another 21.7 percent are planning to do Buchhandels, the Austrian publishers and booksellers so in 2011, 30.1 percent at some point in the future, support of their German equivalent Börsenverein, in while 36 percent said that they had no plans for ebooks. their legal action against Google’s unauthorized digitiza- This compares to Germany, where 35 percent of publish- tion of copyrighted works from libraries and against the ers already offer ebooks, and another 43 percent plan to proposed Google settlement. include ebook editions in the near future. (For details, Austrian publishers so far have been very cautious see the Börsenverlag study from spring 2011 in the with regard to investing in digitization, with only a very chapter on Germany). The Austrian study reveals several few offering current new print releases in ebook formats; more distinctly different developments and expectations what electronic titles they do release are also difficult to between the two countries, as even those publishers in find in the catalogues of German distributors and online Austria who have launched ebooks do so for just 10 to 20 retailers. percent of their new releases and prefer distribution Some, like general trade publisher Haymon, are from their own website (with online retailers and Libreka preparing titles to be launched as ebooks on all major being the second and third most popular options for distribution platforms (in Germany) in time for the distribution). PDF is the prevalent file format with 88.5 Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2011 and plan to add percent of the titles, yet half of the ebooks are made digital editions of their printed releases as a routine available in ePub as well, and 15 percent in the procedure as of spring 2012. For distribution of their MobiPocket format for Amazon’s Kindle. Three out of ebooks, mostly German services have been chosen, such four books are distributed with some copyright manage- as Bookwire, by Austria’s largest trade publisher ment included, yet only 35 percent of the books come Ueberreuter. with DRM, and 65 percent have digital watermarks built in. Austria Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €792 m  Publishers Association (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  8,505  Publishers Association (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  1,028   22 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Under such circumstances, it is hardly surprising that Slovenia no domestic infrastructure for ebook distribution and Slovenia, a small country of 2 million that achieved services has been set up, and publishers – just like local independence only two decades ago upon the collapse chain and independent bookstores – are instead encour- of Yugoslavia, is an exemplary case for many markets at aged to use services from companies based in and run the periphery of the European Union. from Germany. At this point, not even local branch In a tiny publishing market worth an estimated €80 offices of any of the major German service providers to €100 million at consumer prices, more than 6,000 have been opened so far. titles are released every year, which is almost threefold No data is available on ebook titles from Austrian the output per 1 million inhabitants as compared to publishers, nor are detailed revenue figures available so large markets like Germany or France. far. According to the publishers association, ebooks Slovenians are remarkably strong readers and are currently account for less than 1 percent of the book used to reading books not only in their mother tongue, market, and the association’s projections are that this but also in English or, to a lesser degree, German. In share will grow to 5 to 7 percent by 2015. Again accord- larger bookstores, English titles – which represent an ing to the professional association, digital platforms are estimated 15 to 20 percent of the Slovenian market – are not relevant in education thus far. not in a separate “foreign language” section but are As in other European countries, books are subject to seamlessly intermingled with domestic titles. Public a reduced VAT of 10 percent, while ebooks carry the full libraries add to the ample reading diet of Slovenians. 20 percent VAT and are discounted against printed Yet, in the digital environment – which is controlled editions by 10 percent on average. to a large degree by global players and designed for economies of scale, not niche markets – a country like Slovenia sees itself unexpectedly discriminated against, simply because of its small size. For instance, Apple’s iPad device was not shipped into Slovenia before spring 2011, so consumers had to travel to Austria or Italy to purchase the popular devices. Similarly, a significant number of readers bought a Kindle from Amazon online, as the Slovenia Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €90 m   (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year 6,139 (of which 3,500–4,000 are trade titles)   (new and successive editions) Ebook titles 300 (free, noncommercial)   (available from publishers) 23 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

gadget of choice to access Amazon’s vast catalog of Poland English-language books. So far, only 300 titles are avail- With an estimated 8000 trade titles available as ebooks able as ebooks, all free of charge and from the public and scanning initiatives for public domain book account- domain. Also, no domestic distribution platforms have ing for about 2700 titles (mostly in PDF), the Polish been created. The gap between a VAT of 8.5 percent on ebook market is in its early stages. However, the topic is printed books versus 20 percent for ebooks further adds widely debated, such as in panels at the 2011 Warsaw to the hurdle. Book Fair, and – more important – major domestic actors The emergence of domestic production of ebooks are committed to develop their strategic position. has stalled so far in anticipation of a pragmatic escape Ebooks in Poland cannot be limited to a focus on an from the digital isolation. To escape the unusual status exclusively domestic market. Not only are foreign-lan- quo, what is by far the largest domestic player in the field guage imports – notably in English and, to a certain of books and reading, publishing and retail group degree, in German – already a staple for printed books, Mladinska (with holdings, aside from Slovenia, in Serbia, but in addition, imports and adaptations of devices are Croatia, Bosnia and Macedonia, and yearly group rev- met with significant attention, such as when a Kindle enues of 120 million Euros from combined publishing edition of the weekly news magazine Polityka is pro- and bookselling) announced the launch of a cooperative moted (without a localized Kindle shop by Amazon in venture with Kobo in fall 2011. The goal behind this sight) or when a Polish programmer comes up with an partnership is not only to finally create a rich interna- upgrade that allows the popular American Kindle device tional digital catalog for Slovenian readers but to also to read ebooks aloud in Polish ( open the gate to export Slovenian production interna- Empik (, the largest chain store and tionally, including to the significant number of online shop for books and for cultural goods in general, Slovenians living abroad – another trait shared by many which is owned by NFI Empik Media & Fashion, is moving small populations. into the emerging niche, currently with 153 stores in Poland and 22 in Ukraine. In May 2010, Empik set up to extend their international business, by offering foreign language (primarily English and Poland Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €697 m Renek Mendrun: Polish book market study, (p+e, at consumer prices) 2010. Titles published per year  21,740   (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  571   Ebook titles 18,000 7,000 commercialized titles and 11,000 free/ (available from publishers) public domain. (Source: EM&F Group/EMPIK/ Virtualo/.) 24 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

German) products and by catering to communities of Libranova ( is a promotional platform for Polish customers internationally. In its online stores, ebooks and digital reading. Empik is offering 520,000 Polish and 1,500,000 English- “Wolne Lektury” ( is a project language items. Since November 2010, Empik has pro- launched by the Modern Poland Foundation in 2007, moted its own dedicated ereading device, the Oyo, and promoting and displaying school reading as identified in 2011 it added the Boox as well as other devices. By by the Polish Ministry of National Education, with a summer 2011, the Empik catalog included 4231 titles in library of predominantly Polish classical literary books in ePub format and 3485 in PDF format, with most (7078) the public domain. selling under 50 Zloty (or €12), similar to the retail price for printed books. Ebooks have their own prominently Brazil flagged section on the website, plus a “Top 50 ebooki” The Brazilian ebook market had a head start in 2010 from bestseller chart, and promotional campaigns such as just one ebook shop, Gato Sabido (www.gatosabido. heavily discounting a popular series (which included the, with 150 titles for sale at the beginning of the Stieg Larsson Millennium trilogy) in March 2011. year and a broad range available just one year later Virtualo Sp. Z o.o. (, in which EMPIK ( Group holds a controlling stake of 51 percent, claims to market-still-crawling/). By early fall 2011, an estimated be the largest electronic bookstore in Poland, specializ- 4000 commercialized ebook titles in Brazilian Portuguese ing in a mix of ebooks, digital magazines, and devices, are available through a variety of distributors and online with a catalog of 12,600 ebook titles. shops for consumers; educational titles have also shown Weltbild ( is the Polish subsidiary of a significant push from local educational publishing successful German parent Weltbild, as a chain store, groups such as Abril Educação, with a portfolio from online shop, and ebook platform; Weltbild relaunched its apps to educational portals. Polish platform earlier in 2011, aiming at strengthening With Amazon, Google, and other global players still its position in the Polish market as a vendor for cultural absent from the Brazilian market (at least when it comes as well as beauty and household supplies, catering to to localized online platforms), domestic players define some 800,000 customers each month. the landscape thus far. Only the French retail chain Fnac BezKartek (literally “book without pages”; www. has a local presence (, yet ebooks have is a platform launched in 2009 and dedi- hardly any presence at this site. cated to the distribution of ebooks, audiobooks, eread- But major trade publishers have also started to culti- ers, and Apple iPhones. Its catalog includes 145,000 vate the digital niche, notably Saraiva ( books, of which 1400 are in Polish. The initiative’s voca- br) with an estimated 600 ebook titles), Zahar (400 titles), tion is to “popularize ebooks,” serving various formats Campus Elsevier (350 titles), Companhia das Letras, and (PRC, PDF, ePub, and mp3) and to expand their offer by Ediouro. partnering with selected foreign publishers, notably Several online retailers cater to the general reading German educational and language teaching Klett Group audience, such as Livraria Saraiva (www.livrariasaraiva. and the Polish branch of Canadian romance publisher, the retail arm of the Saraiva group) or Livraria Harlequin. The venture is the offspring of Apetonic, a Cultura (, each presenting local consultancy specializing in IT and telecommunica- ebooks with a dedicated section at their websites and tion and financed through the Dracula Investment Fund, promoting ePub-based reading devices, yet at remark- plus private investors from Poland and France. ably high retail prices, such as the iRiver Story at RS 799 25 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

or the British Cool-er, but also tablets from Apple and the Spanish Libranda, with Roberto Vaz Moreira serving with the Android OS. Fnac was chosen by Apple as their as CEO. Roberto Feith, CEO of Objetiva and chairman of initial launch pad for the iPad in Brazil (currently at RS DLD’s board, announced in spring 2011 that DLD would 2.599 for the 64GB Wi-Fi 3G iPad). Nevertheless, a recent launch distribution with some 350 ebook titles, mostly study by Accenture saw Brazil as an extraordinarily bestsellers, aiming at a list of 1500 titles by the end of promising market for all kinds of digital devices (micro- 2011 and serving several online stores, including Saraiva and Cultura. According to Roberto Feith, DLD’s outlook is Accenture_GlobalConsumerTech_2011.pdf ). based on a forecast that “by 2015, the sales of e-readers The ebook catalogues have 2,000 to 3,000 domestic will reach 1 million devices per year, over 8 million titles listed and are complemented by much wider e-books will be sold on a yearly basis, and digital sales English language lists, mostly provided by Overdrive. In will represent 7% of the Brazilian book market” (www. January 2011, Publishing Perspectives reported 2800 Portuguese titles for Gato Sabido, backed up by 130,000 Other ebook distribution and service providers English titles and 2,000 Portuguese ebooks for Cultura include Xeriph (, Singular (www.singular- and Saraiva, with an additional 205,000 English titles, and Simplissimo ( ( br). one-year-on-still-crawling/; publishingperspectives. Average retail prices of ebooks are 25 percent below com/2011/08/brazil-ebook-market-slow-progress/). that of a printed copy, and no VAT applies for books, print Ebook B2B distribution is handled by several compa- or digital. Commercially published titles usually have nies, most prominently the consortium Distribuidora de DRM, and are released in the ePub format. Livros Digitais (DLD; DLD was founded Industry experts expect rapid growth over the com- in March 2010 by six Brazilian publishers – Objetiva ing years, resulting in a relevant impact from ebooks on (partially owned by Santillana), Record, Sextante, Rocco, both retailers and publishers by 2015 at the latest. Planeta, and L&PM, with a similar mode of operations as Brazil Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size €1,352 m (publishers’ revenues) PublishNews (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  52,510   (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  271   Ebook titles  4000   (available from publishers) 26 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

China Yet a comparison of the publishing market in China to that of North America or Europe must take into Status Quo and the Ambitious Plan Ahead account not only highly different levels of income and China claims to be among the global market leaders standard of living but also significant differences in the when it comes to digital publishing and defined the goal structure of the market and in consumption patterns. of “fully embracing digital trends” as a key ambition for As Minister Liu highlighted in his address, at least its 12th Five-Year Plan, which took effect in 2011. With three specifics shape the Chinese environment in digital this goal in mind, Liu Binjie, Minister of both the General publishing and reading: hugely popular online reading Administration of Press and Publication (GAPP) and the platforms, with 200 million Chinese Internet users who National Copyright Administration, used his opening have opened respective accounts; the prevalence of address to the 2011 Beijing International Book Fair to mobile devices when it comes to reading on screens, make more specific his country’s ambitions for the years with publishing revenue from the mobile market reach- ahead. ing ¥34.98 billion in 2010 (representing roughly one- For 2010, the total revenues of the Chinese “publish- third of the overall output in digital publishing) and with ing industry” – a term combining all segments, from 43.3 percent of mobile Internet users reading “literary newspaper to books and all other forms of publications works through apps”; and with digital publishing – accounted for ¥1270 billion (€144 billion), of which strongly fostered by the Chinese government, which has about €105 billion comes from “digital publishing,” show- established nine “national digital publishing bases” since ing a 31.97 percent growth from 2009. 2008 to speed up the development of the sector. The With a book market worth about €8 billion at con- specified goal is to have digital publishing constitute 25 sumer prices (2006), China is the third largest market for percent of the overall output of the industry by the end books, behind the US and Germany, topping Japan and of the current Five-Year Plan (2015). the UK, although it must be added that the average retail Such ambitions, however, must confront significant price for a book is between €1 and €3. challenges, notably the difficulties of an economically China Key indicators Values Source, comments Book market size  €8.2 b  ¥84,000 m (GAPP, 2006) (p+e, at consumer prices) Titles published per year  168,296  GAPP (new and successive editions) New titles per 1 m inhabitants  126   Ebook titles ca. 200,000 titles (estimate) Not including “online literature” titles, which are not comparable, (available from publishers) e.g. 5.2 m titles available from Shanda/Cloudary websites 27 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

smooth transition from print to electronic, the para- identify those that should prepare to develop interna- mount threat to the industry’s value creation from piracy, tional strategies as well as to go public (notably on the and the lack of or relative weakness of technological Shanghai stock exchange). standards. To overcome those hurdles, the Chinese In this way, in late 2010, a new entity branded the government now very actively promotes strategies for “China Education Publishing and Media Group” was Chinese publishing companies to “go out,” or partner launched, with a projected turnover of ¥6 billion – com- with international brands, and encourages international bining the former Higher Education Press, the People’s key holders of market and technological know-how to Education Press, plus several smaller entities – to suc- engage in cooperative and joint venture projects with cessfully confront the challenges of the digital transfor- domestic players. Here, the overall concept is based on a mation and to reach out to international partners. growing “convergence” between all media channels and Several of those groups are preparing for going public. formats, including books, magazines, newspapers, televi- Domestic ebooks are most commonly published in sion, websites, wireless Internet, and telecommunication, CEB, or China Ebook Format, promoted in particular by and on the simultaneously emerging coming together of Apabi (, founded in 2006), the former value creation between publishers, technology provid- digital content division of Founder Group, a major ers, aggregators, platform service providers, and reading Chinese technology conglomerate. The CEB format has device manufacturers. also been used by European and American publishers for introducing their ebooks to the Chinese market (such as The Book Publishing Environment by Penguin, when converting more than 2000 titles into Over the past decade, China has made considerable CEB in 2009 and distributing them via Founder Apabi; efforts to grow and professionalize its (printed book) publishing sector. Although all of the approximately 580 announcements/?i=109). publishing houses are currently under direct state own- ership and control by GAPP, more recently some 10,000 Key Players in the Digital Environment “cultural ateliers” have been created, of which many act Over the past decade, China saw the rise of many major as publishing units but with cooperative contracts with online platforms for all domains of Internet-based com- the state-owned houses for ISBN assignment. By acquir- munication and ecommerce, including online search ing more than 10,000 titles’ foreign rights per year, (; the trading platform Alibaba, which Chinese publishers aggressively broadened their lists includes an online payment system (Alipay); and Yahoo! with internationally competitive works. The Beijing China (acquired in 2005); as well as – in the case of books International Book Fair (BIBF) became a professional hub – online retailer DangDang. of global significance, with the international sector and All these platforms have – each in their respective seminars growing especially rapidly. field of action – in recent years engaged in aggressive Most recently, the government has played an active price wars motivated by very price-sensitive consumers; role in encouraging the best-performing groups to form plus, they had to agree to the terms of the Chinese larger entities and to compete internationally under the government’s strict policy of control over any content, guideline of its “going out” policy. By November 2010, both domestic and from abroad, on sensitive political 435 of 528 officially listed state-owned publishing and social issues, banning unwanted websites, and very houses have undergone restructuring. The goals of this effectively discouraging domestic content providers of effort are to create more competitive companies and to any kind from referring to topics considered to be con- 28 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

troversial. (For a detailed account, see a recently pub- catalogue of 200,000 titles ( lished study by Octavio Kulesz for the International content/96524.html). In June 2011, Hanvon signed an Alliance of Independent Publishers titled “Digital agreement with Shanda to gain access to Shanda’s Publishing in Developing Countries”; ample list of online titles on its “Cloudy Bookstore.” etude/archives/346?lang=en). Shanda’s own device, the Bambook, introduced in 2010, As for publishing, a premier role is expected to be is generally assumed to come in second, at a low double- played by China Mobile, by far the country’s largest digit market share ( communications provider and a Fortune Global 500 man2010/mic/2011-08/16/content_384652_2.htm). company (ranked no. 87 in 2011) with 610 million sub- scribers as of June 2011 and with 300 million mobile Online Literature and eBook Distribution Internet users in 2012, a number that is expected to On the content side, by far the most influential indi- more than double by 2013. vidual player, according to all accounts, is Shanda Although the ambitions of China Mobile to shape the Literature or, as it was rebranded in 2011, Cloudary complete digital sector are huge, it has yet to be seen Corporation. Cloudary supposedly controls some 70 which sector, after the current transition period, will have percent of the booming online literature market in China the upper hand in defining the digital future. At this and, according to Reuters, is currently preparing a $200 point, three angles can be identified in this strategic million IPO at the New York Stock Exchange (Reuters, competition: the (mobile) network providers, led by May 24, 2011, China Mobile; the manufacturers of hardware devices, us-cloudary-idUSTRE74N81H20110524). “Cloudary” is a notably Hanvon, but also most recently Huawei; and the branch of Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd. content providers, that include publishers, as well as (NASDAQ: SNDA), currently operating six websites for various online platforms. user-generated online literature, notably www.qidian. By summer 2011, it became clear that hardware com and three offline publishing companies, as well as manufacturers in particular were facing an increasingly digital magazines and an audio book platform. tough economic environment. Ereader manufacturer The vast majority of Cloudary’s content – very often Hanvon reported significant losses, and both Founder serialized works – is therefore generated by amateur and Aigo announced plans to stop their production of writers who use the platform to build a community of ereaders altogether. The new competitive situation was readers; even for some particularly successful authors, it brought about by price wars for reading devices, espe- is common to turn one’s works initially published online cially since the spring of 2011, as well as new platform into printed books under a revenue sharing agreement competition from tablets – notably Apple’s iPad – and with Cloudary. the major companies have reoriented their strategy by Cloudary claims to have published on its websites by launching content-based ventures ( mid 2011 some 5.2 million titles from about 1.4 million wisework/content/100675.html). authors, at a rate of 6 million characters being written Hanvon, founded in 1998, is thought to control an and published online every day. estimated two-thirds of the markets for E Ink–based A survey by for the fiscal year 2010 reading devices, claiming over 1 million units sold. In its stated that by December 2010, Cloudary had over own ebook shop at, Hanvon claimed 950,000 paying users in the fourth quarter of 2010. And in March 2011 to have 130,000 ebook titles available for 50 percent of the net online revenues derive from online download and to soon be expanding that number to a user subscription payments, adding up to ¥103 million 29 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

(up from ¥37.4 million in 2008): 29 percent from wireless International Cooperative Ventures services (growing from ¥1.4 million in 2008 to ¥60 mil- Over the past years, at an accelerating pace, most major lion in 2010) and 10.2% from online advertising (up from international publishing brands have looked at establish- ¥3 million in 2008 to ¥21 million in 2010). Cloudary was ing cooperative ventures with Chinese counterparts, a the largest paid content provider for China Mobile’s movement that was actively welcomed by Chinese central reading station in 2010. authorities through their “going out” policy. This list In October 2010, Cloudary/Shanda Literature includes, to name just a few examples, companies such launched its ebook platform Yun Zhong Shu Cheng as Penguin, which has opened a Beijing office in 2005; (, meaning “Library in the Clouds” Hachette, which announced its joint venture with (source: Guangdong-based Phoenix Publishing & Media Group in the-cloudary-ipo-china%E2%80%99s-user-generated- 2009; Cambridge University Press; and, literature-websites/). which acquired the domestic online retailer in Reading as well as writing platforms, bundled with 2004 and since then has operated the localized version ebook distribution to large user communities, have been of its store, branded since 2007 as introduced by several more popular portals, such by, China’s huge infotainment portal and microb- logging website ( Ebook distribution platforms of relevant size have also been introduced by a number of publishing compa- nies, such as, launched by China Publishing Group Corporation, one of the largest players in the Chinese publishing industry. 30 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Key Drivers and Debates framing conditions, and such markets foster the emer- A comparative analysis of international ebook markets gence or, even more importantly, sustenance of strong shows an abundance of different parameters that result domestic players, for both publishing and retail and for in variations between the markets, of which some may services and innovation. be temporary and others which most likely will persist Examples include the emphasis on the national book and remain relevant for the mid-term (three to five years) culture in Germany or France, with an almost unanimous and the long-term (five to ten years) periods ahead. consensus in the professional book communities there The main drivers of differentiation as identified in the on the value of the book and reading and, as a result, market profiles of this study include the following: calls for price regulation as well as a strong defense of the respective book cultures against what is defined as Key characteristics of the existing print book market “external interference”. As a result, Google’s digitization projects have been confronted by coordinated legal Key market parameters, including: action in several European countries which had notably in France strong political support from government Regulatory frameworks institutions. Examples are the French-sponsored national and European digitization projects (e.g., Gallica and Pricing strategies for ebook receptiveness for Europeana) and the German digital distribution platform foreign (English) reading Libreka, as well as legal charges against Google. Interestingly, in several of the largest continental Receptiveness for foreign (English) reading European book markets (but not in the UK), the creation of a digital infrastructure has led to the forming of con- Preferred ereading platforms and related reading sortia, of which several have managed to take up a habits position as either the primary or the second leader in the digital service environment. Such is the case in France, ■ Choice and comfort of present-day ereading Germany, Spain, Italy, and Sweden. methods These same markets, plus China, are now targeted by the few global brands (or, in the Chinese term, “super Each of these sets of parameters, and combinations players”) of ebook globalization, namely Amazon, thereof, will not only affect each market’s ebook evolu- Google, Apple, and Kobo. tion but will also frame the interplay of domestic and Amazon – foremost, its Kindle platform – prepare global factors as they encourage either globalizing or localized versions of its available titles, which go far more differentiating forces. beyond just the selling of printed and digital books, as they are backed up by various related services for self- Key Characteristics of the publishing and print on demand. Google Editions also Existing Print Book Market comes in a bundle with related value propositions, of The size of a book market matters. Large book markets which most bring book content onto various mobile such as Germany and France but also China are centers platforms. Apple, with the iPad, iPhone, and iTunes, is of gravity in their own right, for distinct domestic devel- integrating distribution and consumption under one opments. These markets reflect a distinct national cul- umbrella. Canadian firm Kobo seems to have a strategy tural tradition and identity resulting in strong national of teaming up with localized platforms in major markets, 31 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

whether ebook channels (like Libreka in Germany) or At the other end of the scale, small markets find general retail platforms from outside the traditional book themselves in a challenging situation as well. Many have business, such as Redcoon, which has a presence in a rooted their cultural and national identity in a cultural number of markets throughout Europe. singularity, which is usually anchored in literature and At this initial point of expansion beyond the Anglo- books. Yet those same local elites who represent such a Saxon sphere, it is difficult to seriously assess the future strong local identity, and who are strong readers, also impact of those global networks on the various local tend to be among the first to embrace reading in English, markets. as they are fluent in foreign languages and open to other Google – via its digitization efforts with libraries and cultures and travel widely. the scanning of copyrighted works – has become a BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), catalyst, rallying in defense of the American company’s because of their size and dynamic as emerging markets, claim to “organize the knowledge of the world,” at least in must be addressed separately, as was done for Brazil and Germany and France over the past several years. This China in the scope of this study. communal action has resulted in the identification of the China, because of the size of its market, has devel- digitization of books, most broadly, as an assault on book oped not only publishing, distribution, and technologi- culture and on fair compensation for intellectual prop- cal entities of significant scale but also, for example, a erty. After the downfall of the music industry and the domestic ebook format and a device industry. Perhaps impact of piracy on the music business, lobbying by more important is that China has started to explore the professional organizations of the publishing industry staggering explosion of mobile Internet usage through could find broad support for its claims. “Digital” has been smartphones for content distribution; thus reading broadly identified with “illegal” or at least “unfair” use of books as well as the singular formula of “online literature” the cultural stock, first in Germany and France and then have started to form genuinely unique evolutionary over time in many parts of continental Europe. In the patterns. context of an ever broader concern about digital infor- In addition, Brazil and Russia – not to speak of Korea mation technologies, surveillance, and the loss of pri- or Japan – have encouraged, most often with significant vacy, ebooks hit continental Europe at a moment when public support, the emergence of relevant local actors, “digital” or “e” reading is considered to be a threat to particularly in educational publishing. These groups have citizens’ freedom and Europe’s difficult stand in a global- grown to local or regional giants, who mostly have izing world. strong ambitions for the digital future by preparing Books, in such a context, are swiftly perceived as a themselves as local hubs. As a result, they become the strong symbol of resistance, rooted in a genuine preferential partners for the swiftly expanding leaders of European tradition of “Enlightenment” (through books the globalizing educational industry. It must be added, and universal reading and education). At least such is the though, that electronic education follows different current argument of the cultural establishment in most pathways and patterns than trade publishing, for a mix European countries, which must not however be identi- of economic, cultural, and political reasons, and necessi- fied with readers – the majority of whom are well-edu- tates a separate study altogether. In major European cated and media-savvy urbanites – who are largely open markets, for instance (e.g., Germany), digital educational to the offerings of the Web, probably including ereaders content and platforms have barely started to take off. and ebooks. Yet it is the same cultural elite that is preoc- cupied with losing local “cultural identity.” 32 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Key Market Parameters with Google being broadly identified with the broader topic of emerging ebooks. Regulatory Frameworks Although a ruling on the case or an acceptance of the In several European countries, book prices are regulated “Google settlement” was postponed several times in and are subject to reduced VAT, yet these regulations do 2010–2011, all of the French publishing houses involved not automatically apply to ebooks. In France, legislation in the battle have as of 2011 dropped the case. Hachette to extend fixed prices to ebooks was introduced in 2011. and then La Martinière decided to sign separate agree- In Spain, the existing “Book Law” is understood to cover ments with Google to have their backlists digitized by ebooks as well as printed books. In Germany, the US company and to in return abandon legal prosecu- Börsenverein – the professional association for publish- tion. Gallimard, Flammarion, and Albin Michel in August ers and booksellers – is lobbying the federal government 2011 stopped pursuing legal action as well. for an extension of the law of fixed prices for books to From a strategic perspective, these developments ebooks. can be understood as a change of tides. Until 2010, the The problem with the VAT is that, according to the efforts of the book industry representatives were aimed European Commission, books are considered to be primarily at containing as much as possible the American products, but in the case of ebooks, the consumer is ebook and digitization tsunami from spilling over all too acquiring a license. This difference results in significant rapidly into major European book markets. During the surcharges for ebooks and discrimination of ebooks second half of 2010 – and even more so in 2011 – as versus printed books. A complex discussion is currently domestic infrastructure for handling ebooks were set up, taking place among both national trade associations as with European retailers betting more and more on well as the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), with ebooks (such as Fnac, Thalia, Weltbild), and with publishers arguing in favor of extending reduced VAT Amazon’s opening of a German Kindle shop in April rates to ebooks, notably to “ensure that professional 2011, the defensive measures were ripe for abandon- published content, regardless of its format or method of ment and replacement by policies implemented to access, receives a fiscal treatment that recognizes its embrace the new digital world. contribution to a wide range of goals in social, cultural The next frontier in the battle over change, obviously, and economic terms” (reply by FEP to a Green Paper of is pricing. the European Commission on VAT, May 2011; www. Pricing Strategies for eBooks CommissionGreenPaperontheFutureofVAT.pdf ). How much should an ebook cost? Due to the prevalence Especially in France and Germany, publishers’ associa- of fixed prices in most of continental Europe (with tions (SNE and Börsenverein), authors’ representatives, Sweden as an exception), publishers usually set the retail and individual publishers (Hachette, Gallimard, La price, and competition in books is not driven by pricing. Martinière, and others) have actively participated in legal In Germany, France, Italy, and France, publishers actions in New York against Google’s digitization of strongly defend the calculation of ebook prices in rela- copyrighted books and the proposed “Google settle- tion to print as the most relevant benchmark, and ment,” which captured the attention of both the media according to this concept, ebooks come at a discount of and the interested (professional) audience, and politics, an average 10 to 20 percent, with a trend closer to the 20 to the point of the conflict of the “book professionals” percent discount. 33 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

This status quo still mirrors a largely traditional con- The dynamics of change and pressure on average cept of publishers marketing (electronic as well as print) pricing will increase further, as books are currently books as well as setting the price and readers purchasing migrating beyond the traditional book trade to general ebooks from sources and in a context similar to the retail channels, for example, those rooted in electronics traditional book market. Yet this context of book selling and entertainment, like Redcoon, and as nontraditional is facing serious change. business models arise, like subscription models or As ebooks travel more easily, across markets and Amazon’s alleged rental model (which was instantly even linguistic borders – as will be highlighted shortly – critically reviewed by Börsenverein for Germany). and because early adopters of ebooks are conceivably strong and well-educated readers who are ready to Receptiveness for Foreign (English) Reading embrace books in languages other than their native It has been argued that ebooks will give a big push to language, international price comparisons for ebooks English reading around the globe, for the simple reason will become more and more relevant as benchmarks. that ebooks travel at low cost over long distances, cross- Even a brief, exemplary analysis across four key ing borders seamlessly, once globally acting companies markets reveals a complex picture indeed. We compared, have set up the required infrastructures and made the for this study, the top ten fiction bestsellers for the US required legal arrangements per each target market, and (Publishers Weekly), the UK (The Bookseller/Nielsen), also because early adopters of ebooks are the strongest France (Livres Hebdo/Ipsos), and Germany (Der Spiegel/ readers and the most worldly, the most frequent travel- buchreport) on different platforms and in both printed ers, and the most linguistically competent consumers. and digital formats for the first week of September 2011. Although at this stage no data are available as evidence Germany and France have fixed prices, no discounts are for this assumption, some indicators can nevertheless be allowed for Germany, and up to 5 percent is allowed for identified. France. In countries such as the Netherlands or Sweden, The comparison clearly shows that average prices on English-language print books have become more and bestsellers are lower in the UK or US, as in Germany and more popular with readers, and such is also the case in France. several Central and Southeast European countries, There is also a likelihood that once ebook prices go including Slovenia, to the point that translation of down, which is widely expected, the average retail price English-language fiction into local languages has been of printed editions may go down as well. reported to be challenged by imports of the original Avg. list Avg. discounted Avg. discount Avg. ebook Avg. ebook price against Country price (€) print price (€) (%) price (€) discounted print price (%) UK 18.73 10.68 43 9.71 9 US 19.49 11.33 42 10.13 11 FR 20.98 19.93 5 15.80 21 DE 16.35 16.35 0 12.66 23 Table: Average prices, in euros, for the top ten fiction bestsellers in the US, first week of September 2011 (sources: Publishers Weekly, The Bookseller/Nielsen, Livres Hebdo/Ipsos, and Der Spiegel/buchreport). 34 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

editions. In Germany, what is by far the largest whole- Surprisingly, the price level is not all that far from the saler, Libri, successfully started to expand its foreign-lan- average Kindle price of a German fiction title from the guage packages to retailers almost a decade ago, as top-selling segment, €12.70. Print prices meanwhile could be seen in the ever-growing foreign-language remain far apart, with €11.30 on versus a selections in the largest chain stores, notably Thalia. regulated €16.35 for a German book. Although these foreign-language shelves used to be Another issue of strategic relevance is, of course, occupied predominantly by literary classics, it is now the availability. Unsurprisingly, ten out of the current top ten latest releases of bestselling fiction from the US and, to a in fiction in both the US and the UK are available as lesser degree, the UK that constitute this segment’s ebooks for the Kindle and in the ePub format. In France, profile. Fnac has seven of the French top ten in ePub, and in More recently, an increasing number of online shops Germany, seven out of ten can be purchased for the have added dedicated English catalogues with an Kindle and eight out of ten in the ePub format, with both increasing number of titles, even in countries like France, editions sold at identical prices. Italy, or Spain, which had been traditionally more diffi- But in Germany, ten out of the UK top ten and nine cult to access for foreign-language reading. out of the US top ten are available on, even Amazon, which expanded its presence with localized though pricing carries some unexpected marks, such as online stores in Italy and Spain in 2011, is strongly pro- The Comeback Girl by UK’s Katie Price, which costs 176 moting its English catalogue as well as increasingly percent more on, as in the heavily dis- broad offerings in other languages, both in print and for counted British Kindle edition (although with one excep- the Kindle. tion, German and US Kindle editions carry approximately But the strongest force in the emergence of an inter- the same price tag when converted into euros). national web of English reading is probably Amazon’s At the French Fnac site, and at, things are integration of its ebook catalogue, with the Kindle read- quite different: not one of the US top titles is available, ing platform, plus an increasingly uniform pricing policy and just four out of ten are available on Libri, with none ready to flatten the differences in what an ebook costs a on Fnac. But even currently lists only one title consumer across markets. from the US top ten. As the previously mentioned close-up on current These few selected samples certainly do not produce fiction bestsellers in the US, the UK, France, and Germany enough evidence for a complete picture of how – illustrated clearly, price levels for printed as well as for through ebooks and global retailers, notably Amazon – a ebooks differ widely, with average top ten bestsellers new global map of reading emerges. But the findings costing between €10.68 in the UK, and almost double, or allow the identification of powerful driving forces that €19.93 in France. The top ten of the US list in the Kindle will most certainly shape the industry as well as the format, however, are sold at almost the same price in reading culture in the years ahead. Germany as in New York, at €11.24 on average. 35 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Preferred eReading Platforms and Choice and Comfort of Present- Related Reading Habits Day eReading Offerings The example of China (or Japan or Korea) indicates that As a rule of thumb, most new releases – at least in fiction more than just one or two ways are conceivable for – in the larger European book markets now tend to be digital reading. Mobile platforms seem to create alto- published as ebooks along with printed editions. But gether different ecosystems for using digitized content, backlist titles are still very scarce. including books, than ereaders and tablets in the US and In France, the recent deals of Hachette and then La Europe. Martinière with Google and in-house efforts in Germany In present-day continental Europe, tablets – which so at Random House will broaden the available catalogues far largely means Apple’s iPad – is a successful and quickly, yet they are a long way from the much richer increasingly popular platform, yet intended more (by its offerings in English. designers) for a broad mix of usages and media formats. First reports from public libraries in Europe with Often, with a reference to a highly focused culture of regard to lending ebooks hint that this approach has intense reading, dedicated devices with an E Ink screen significant potential to familiarize some of the strongest are the first choice for books. readers with the concept of reading on screens. However, with Amazon rolling out localized catalogs The expected entrance of Google Editions, with its and Kindle shops and adding new reading devices such huge stock of digitized books in many languages, is as the Kindle Touch, promoted with pricing dedicated to bound to have an impact on the situation as well, as is specific European markets (as is the case for Germany, the prospect of a next generation of reading devices with the new device priced at €99.00, when launched in with E Ink screens and as tablets. late September 2011), and with many new tablet devices Although most surveys on user appreciation high- ready for release in time for Christmas 2011, as well as light that DRM is hardly popular with readers, rights price wars in China having a heavy impact on manufac- protection is such a high priority for publishers (with few turers, the current situation is extremely fluid. exceptions, such as the Netherlands) that at least for the moment, books seem to come with these protective strings attached. 36 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Outlook and Projections From a bird’s-eye perspective, 2010 and 2011 can Emerging ebook markets outside of the US and the UK easily be seen as a period of changing tides in all of the are all estimated to currently represent at best 1 percent surveyed European markets, at first with the technical of the overall book market, making projections of future and logistical infrastructure for the distribution of dynamics of growth extremely difficult. (And China is a ebooks being put in place and consumers being made different case altogether, with the prominent placement aware of ebooks not through publishers but retailers. in China of mobile platforms.) The discussions about pricing and piracy have been Another factor for differentiation is the role of digital contained largely to the professional milieu. Probably educational publishing, which plays a much more central most significantly, all of the largest players in the arena role in Brazil; even in Germany, education is considered – publishing groups as well as retail chains – are invest- to be thus far the exclusive turf of books and materials ing significantly in the digital future and hence preparing on paper. the ground, while a small yet powerful group of global Furthermore, feedback from a questionnaire sent to actors – Amazon, Google, Apple, and new entrants Kobo (mostly) market representatives for the purpose of this and soon probably also Barnes & Noble – are also enter- study, collecting both data and opinion, hint at different ing the field. speeds of market development for Germany, for exam- How the American market picked up speed all of a ple, as compared to Italy or Spain, which is very much sudden in fall 2010 to achieve the first double-digit consistent with respect to Internet penetration. market share in the key segment of bestselling fiction is In 2015 in Germany, ebook penetration of between a lesson to bear in mind for 2012 and 2013 – not for all of 10 and 15 percent of the book market is conceivable; this Europe, but at least for Germany and France. Yet with number is considerably lower – around 8 to 10 percent both specific factors shaping markets and reading cul- – for Italy or Spain. But the same low expectations of tures, a simple rerun of the American experience seems digital growth are found among local publishing profes- rather unlikely. In a global perspective, and with a hori- sionals in Austria, with a book market that is largely zon of the next three to five years, a more complex governed out of Germany. picture seems more realistic, with a handful of different Interestingly, when asked if ebooks will have a rel- patterns emerging, some more closely connected to evant impact on retailers and publishers by 2015, a much global integration, and others – by cultural separation broader consensus is expressed that this is most likely; and through regulations – going digital at a slower pace. hence this anticipation is seen independent from the actual market share of ebooks. 37 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Acknowledgments Gallimard (, Eric Marbeau O’Reilly Media wishes to thank the following organiza- tions and individuals for their contributions to this Nielsen Book Scan, Jonathan Nowell report: Shanda, Lisa Liping Zhang Hauptverband des österreichischen Buchhandels (, Inge Kralupper Penguin China, Jo Lusby Chinese Academy of Press and Publication, PA (, Mandy Knight Jiang Xiaojuan IPA (, (, Dr. Fabian Niebling Jens Bammel Libreka (, Ronald Schild Denis Kotov (Russia) The Bookseller (, Cora Stephan, Philipp Jones Empik Poland (, Magdalena Zając Publishers Weekly (, Jim Milliott Uebereuter (, Andrea Braunsdorfer Mladinska Kniga & University of Ljubljana (, Miha Kovac Picus (, Alexander Potyka Spanish Publishers Association Ministry of Culture, Spain, Monica Fernandez (, Antonio Maria Avila Budapest Observatory (, Peter Inkei Planeta (, Patricio Tixis and Jesus Badenes Next Page (, Yana Genova BogMakreted Denmark (, Marsh Agency, Camilla Ferrier Bjarke Larsen NUV.NL Dutch Association, Paula Vrolijk SNE (French syndicate) (, Jacqueline Tiolentino elib (, Johan Greif GeMS (, Stefano Mauri Dutch Leteren Fonds (, Bas Pauw 38 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

Flammarion (, Gilles Haeri Messagerie (, Alessandro Baldeschi Federal Agency for Press and Mass Communication, Russia, Vladimir Grigoriev Mondadori (, Gemma D’Alessandro Russian Publishers Association / St Petersburg, Sergei Kaikin Albrecht Lempp Book dao (, Sanguo Cheng Holtzbrinck (, Gaby Harlow Boersenverein (, Johannes Neufeld Mohrbooks Agency, Uwe Heldt Libranda (, Larrauri Arantza Kobo, Peter Swienkels Weltbild (, Christian Schniedermann Mark Bide Graf & Graf Agency (, Rebekka Göpfert Oxford Brookes University, Angus Philipps Hong Ouyang 39 : The Global eBook Market: Current Conditions & Future Projections

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