Вестник Томского государственного университета. История. 2013. №1 (21) ABSTRACT I. MATERIALS OF SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM «BOOKS OF ETHNOCONFESSIONAL CULTUR SOCIETY IN HISTORY AND NOW: METHODOLOGY, METHODS AND PRACTICE OF RESEARCH», TOMSK, 2012, 14-15 JUNE P. 7. Kerov V.V. "LOSS AND PROFIT ACCOUNTS …": ECONOMIC BOOKISHNESS OF OLD BELIVERS AS FORM OF CON- FESSIONAL WRITTEN AND BOOK CULTURE. In article the analysis of a special type of a confessional Old Believe bookishness – an economic book culture is undertaken. The author of article suggests carrying to an Old Believe confessional bookishness and monuments of economic culture. They were included in communal libraries along with ascetic and learning collections. That fact is represented to the most important that the Old Believers economic culture had distinct confessional character. In the second half of 18th - early 19th century Old Be- lievers became confessional and economic community. Implementation of functions of Old Believe business was directed on consolidation of all community. In these conditions otherwise, than in the environment of Synod flock nature of merchant occupation was perceived, it had the expressed confessional component. Already since the beginning of the 18th century the idea of a God-sent wealth developed. In a Old Belief the relation to enterprise occupation was special also. The chief assistant in "business" realized the Lord. As a result Old Believers of various denominations developed, including, an economic bookishness – written culture of confessional economy. In monuments of an old believe economic book culture various aspects of life of community were reflected: from problems of property and lines of business culture of Old Belief denominations to an everyday life of old believe businessmen. Since vygovsky times of communal and collective business the strict account and the control which has reached much higher level developed in Old Believers, than at flock of Synod church. In bespop- ovsky and popovsky communities strict accounting reports for what blotters on goods sales", "Accounts of profit and a loss" (monthly), "Cash desk accounts", "Cash desk reports", "Accounts of expenses", "Debt registers" were created "Were observed. In these sources the in- ternal structure of business activity, its feature is reflected. In them all aspects of life of a community and its members, including hidden from persecutors of Old Belief of form of ownership in an old believe community of that time are described. Other major aspect of life the Old Believers displayed in accounting documents of Old Believers, was protection of conservatives against prosecutions of the authorities. Here the backbone role was played by corruption. As showed, in particular, materials of accounts department of the Guchkov, on "pro-feeding" of conservatives there was a great number of chiefs of police, quarter, police officers and so forth. According to these documents it is possible to specify even such questions as the valid religion of large Old Believer owners. Many of them, under pressing of the authorities formally passed in edinovery, continued to pay money to a community. Thus, economic documents of old believe communities and their representa- tives form special economic area of Old Believers confessional bookishness where economic rationalism and the scrupulous account with idea of blessed wealth and a salutary profitable activity for the belief benefit merged. Key words: Old Believers, confessional bookish-written culture, bookishness, economic bookishness, business culture. P. 15. Shemyakin J.G. THE NATURE OF THE RELATION OF LANGUAGE, TEXT AND TYPE IN THE BORDERLINE CIVILI- ZATIONS. The problem of the relation of the three global culture-factors - Language, Text and Type in various types of civilizations. The author identifies and analyzes the major differences between "classical" and "borderline" civilizations as a way of existence and the nature of the relationship of these factors. The most complete embodiment of the "classical" type of civilization author considers four "subecumenes" (G.S. Pomerantz) - Western, Far East (with the center in China), South Asian (with the center in India) and the world of Islam. A defining feature of these "cultural worlds" - the dominant principle of unity: it is present everywhere or that spiritual core of values that permeates, stitched together, the variety of component elements of civilization. "Border" is distinguished civilization, in that case principle of diversity predominates over the principle of unity. Historically, the "borderline" of civilized community concerned, in my opinion, Hellenistic and Byzantine civilizations. Nowadays, this type of civilization is represented by the Russian-Eurasian and Latin American civilizations, the Balkans, and (with considerable reservations) Iberian cultural-historical community. The typical feature of "classical" civilizations is a heavy functional relationship of Language, Text and Type, causing formation of the general field of information, connected by a single spiritual content. In civilizational "frontier" such rigidity is absent, both these factors, and the nature of their relationship look completely different because of the defining structural characteristic of "borderline" civilizations - the dominant diversity. This dominance is manifested by: 1) The fact that in the "border" reality the structure of the linguistic space determines not a dominance of a single language (as in subecumenes), but such forms as language union and/or linguistic variation, in that language process (speech) prevails over the language-system, and the oral form of speech is more important than writing; 2) The fact that the structure of the "ideal body" of civilization does not define a just one Sacred Text, but the dialogue of qualitatively different Texts (conceptions of the world), which is manifested in the open, and in a latent form; 3) The fact that instead of a type with a fixed relationship of language and text, typical of the "classical" civilizations, the civilizational "borderland" arises the diversity of such a connection, much more flexible than in the "classical" case. In view of all these circumstances, there is every reason not to talk about one information field, but a combination of various information and semantic fields. Key words: Language, Text, Type, borderline civilization, classical civilization. P. 26. Shemyakina O.D. ABOUT MANICHEAN-GNOSTIC COMPLEX IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE AND CONFESSIONAL TEXTS. The author discusses the cultural, landscape and climatic context of the creation of the hard dualism in cosmological schemes of Manichaeism and Gnosticism, analyzes the possible causes of the Gnostic-Manichaean influence on the premised knowledge of researcher, forms a hypothesis about possible causes of migration of the values orientations of the researcher on the texts of traditional culture. For the solution of worded problems the author is turned to the conceptosphere of natural language. Key concepts of Russian Spiritual Culture, Good and Evil, considered from the point of view of their importance and evolution in the traditional culture and elite culture (T.I.Vendina), suggests reasons for the migration of the axiosphere of the researcher on the texts of traditional culture. In the context of the problems raised, the author considers warranted inclusion in the structure of the confessional text not only texts of written and oral culture, but the rhythms of everyday life that are emerging at the intersection of different practices, given by sacred calendars. Key words: Gnostic-Manichaean complex, premised knowledge, cultural context, spiritual practices, social practices, nature use practice.
Abstracts 227 P. 31. Pochinskay I.V. THE FORMULA FOR CALCULATING OF CIRCULATION OF EARLY RUSSIAN BOOKS: USE CONDI- TIONS. The period of the initial Russian book-printing documented very poorly, so, despite the huge number of scientific publications, knowledge about it is very limited and mostly hypothetical. Attempts to find innovative approaches to gaining knowledge, unfortunately, does not always lead to the desired results. Among these attempts, of course, was proposed by A.A Amosov in the early 1980's calculation of circulation of Russian editions XVI - early XVII century. However, knowledge about the domestic typography, accumulated in the last decades, suggests ineffectiveness of Amosov’s formula. This conclusion was reached as a result of detailed analysis of the arguments of the author. "Side effect" of this analysis is the observation of interesting details of publishing activities late XVI - early XVII century. This period of the history of domestic printing refers to the least known, so any attempt to establish new details is of great importance. Amosov proposed scheme for calculating circulation of publication, consisting of several formulas. First is the basic formula: T = N × t/2Vp, where T - book circulation, N - the average daily productivity of the mill in printer’s sheets, t – time of the real work on printing of the book in days, Vp - volume of the publication in printer’s sheets. A number of auxiliary formulas can calculate the values in the basic formula. The formula for calculating of the circulation works in the conditions stated by the author as an axiom: the stability of printing technology and work organization during the reporting period. Calculated circulations of books, released in the Moscow State before 1610, were given by Amosov in the summary table. This information raised a number of questions among. Main question among them: how the circulations in 1300-1600 plus copies were printed? It arose from the fact that the number of prints with the set in the Middle Ages was not significantly greater than the value of 1200. We analyzed the start and end dates of work on each book, taking account of the breaks between the publications issued by one master. So we came to the conclusion that one issue was often printed on two mills; work on a publication could be suspended for the public release of the other. The unstable social and political situation in the country certainly influenced the rhythm of the printing press. Thus, the formula proposed by Amosov indeed allows to calculate the circulation. However, it works only if the coexistence of certain constants take place, but this condition was not possible in real life. Key words: Russia, culture, book-printing, printing technology, the circulation of books. P. 36. Smilyanskaya E.B. BOOK LEARNING AND WAYS TO SALVATION IN THE OLD BELIEVER COMMUNITIES AT THE TURN OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY. The article, based on extensive field studies of the Old Believer communities of the Upper Kama, explores profound changes brought about by the declining role of book in the Old Believer confessional culture at the turn of the twenty first century. The generational changes resulted in a diminished role of reading and interpretation of sacred text that for centuries had been at the core of communal religiosity. As a result, the traditional “ideological community” structured around spiritual leaders bringing the sacred truths to the faithful gave way to a “textual community,” as defined by B. Stock. In such communities the role played by the learned members is minimal: they merely familiarize the illiterate with the sacred text and stimulate production of interpretations adopted by the faithful. This shift became apparent as early as the latter part of the 1980s. While clinging to the material tradition, such as prescribed types of clothing, shoes, food and cooking, the religious leaders embraced novel interpretations of spiritual and theological values, including justi- fication, intercession of the saints, or the symbolism of the sacred space. Their renditions of biblical and hagiographical texts were increas- ingly divorced from the written word and instead became an original legendary tradition that interpreted the given liturgical and doctrinal norms in novel, original ways. The reverence for the sacred text was seamlessly blended with rather unorthodox construal, and the still un- shakeable adherence to ancient cultural norms, with creative adapting to modernity. The decline of book-centered religiosity made the Old Believer traditionalist communities resulted in fusing of ancient and novel interpretational models guiding the faithful on their quest for per- sonal salvation. Key words: Christianity, popular religion, book culture, Old Believers, folk culture. P. 44. Ageeva E.A. SELF-BAPTISMIN OLD BELIEF: CENTERIS, PRACTICE, WRITTEN TRADITION. The article considers poorly studied phenomenon at the Old Belief, known as ‘samokreschenstvo’ (self-baptism). Self-baptism has a long history and complex structure. Self-baptized were known among different consents of Old Believers - pomortsy, spasovtsy. Euthymius - the founder of a consent of strangers, himself baptized. Then there was extensive debate and a number of manuscripts, some of which are recently introduced in the scientific use. The roots of this phenomenon go to the early history of Christianity. The lives of the saints described a number of facts, when martyrs crossed themselves before death. In the second half of the eighteenth century an idea of the possibility of self-baptism, not only in extreme cases, occurred among Old Believers. This is indicated by Ivan Zhuravlev - one of the first historians of the Old Believers. Since the nineteenth century, there are more details about self-baptism. In 1837, Saratov tradesman Bondarev wrote an essay in which he argued that it is possible to remain an Orthodox Christian and do without the visible Church and the hierarchy. Self-baptized Matthew A. was well-known in the neighborhood of Samara. He apparently left the Fedoseevtsy because they did not pray for the tsar and did not recognize the marriage. At the Pomortsy councils (in 1881, 1887, 1889, 1896) discussed the rules of admission of self-baptized Old belivers from Matthew A. In 1909 the discussion continued on the first All-Russian Council of Christian Pomortsy in Moscow. Zapyantseva activity (1849 - Oct. 1916, originally from the village Tolba of Nizhny Novgorod province) was widespread. He is actively engaged in polemics with the Old Believers of different concerts, defending a broad correspondence on proper baptism. His name was known in the Urals and Siberia. Obviously a num- ber of other Bespopovtsy consents related to self-baptism. But the almost complete absence of written records, does not allow valid conclu- sions about their origins and relationships in the structure of the Old Believers consent of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Finally, an important milestone in the study was to identify the fragment work ‘The possibility of self-baptism and the rite of self-baptism’ from the manuscript of the nineteenth century (Nizhny Novgorod collection Russian State Library). In this essay explained the self-baptism of elder Euthymius. Lists of this work expected to identify and study. The study of such works of strangers will explore the Old Believers histo- riographical tradition and allow understanding the mindset of supporters of individual comprehension of faith. Key words: Old Believers; bespopovtsy; manuscript. P. 49. Kazantseva T.G. REPERTOIRE AND FUNCTIONS OF PRAYER CHANTING BOOKS IN LITURGICAL PRACTICE OF OLD BELIEVERS STRANNIKI DIRECTION. In the present article one of possible aspects of studying of liturgical practice of modern Siberian Old Belief – chanting books and forms of their functioning in church service – is considered. The tradition of Old Believers of the Stranniki direction living in the territory of the Kemerovo region is chosen as the object of the analysis. This tradition draws attention be- cause of high level of liturgical chanting culture, and also preservation of the most archaic forms of the Old Russian cult monodiya. The printing editions of the chanting books which have been carried out in the beginning of the XX century in Old Believers’ printing house of
Abstracts 228 the Preobrazhenskiy Almshouse served as the material for research. These editions are kept in communal library. Stranniki prefer them to hand-written chanting codes. Old Believers’ printing editions of chanting books have not become earlier object of independent research. In the community studied by us three printing chanting books are used: "Irmosa", "Oktay", "Obikhod". They give rather fair idea of publishing tradition of Old Believers of the bespopovtsian direction formed at the beginning of the XX century. Its distinctive features be- come apparent both at substantial level, and in nature of book design. The analysis of editions allowed to come to the conclusion on orienta- tion of these books to monastic practice before Raskol, probably, connected with traditions of the Solovetsky monastery which was the most authoritative spiritual center for bespopovtsian. Among analyzed books the greatest interest "Obikhod". This book should be considered as encyclopedia of chanting genres and styles, reflecting the melodic wealth which has been saved up by Russian medieval singing culture to the middle of the XVII century. Nevertheless, the volume of the chants, containing in three above-named books, doesn't settle all chanting repertoire of Old Believers’ church service. In this regard in the article the question of sufficiency of the specified number of books of znameny notation for high-grade service is considered. The analysis of distribution of forms of vocal execution concerning a range of the liturgical genres involved on church service allowed to establish that hymns of a znamenny chant containing in books make only insignificant part of texts executed on service. There are other forms of chanting occurring in oral tradition. Using these forms, Old Believers can reproduce these or those texts on liturgic books without notation which in this context assume functions of chanting miscellanies. Key words: liturgical practice of the Siberian Old Believers, manuscript and printing editions of znamenny chant. P. 58. Bazarov A.A. BDDHIST BOOK CULTURE IN PARCHIN: BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND RITUAL. Modern studies in the field of confessional book culture (CBC) face a lot of questions. One of the most important is as follows: is there a typological similarity in CBC beyond ethnic and religious specificity? The phenomenon I consider in this paper is a symbiosis of philosophy (scholastic studies) and religious practice (ritual) in CBC. Results of my fieldwork of Buddhist book culture in Buryatia indicate that the Phar phyin (Prajna- paramita) texts are central and bivalent in CBC (i.e. involving both scholastic philosophy and religious ritual). I do emphasize that while studying this problem the methods of social archaeography are very important. I focus on not only a book per se but also on socio-cultural context around it. Phar phyin (Prajna-Paramita) literature is a foundation of scholastic education in Buryatia. Phar phyin literature in Buryat monastic education system can be divided into two groups: 1. translations of original Indian works (root texts); 2. Tibetan and Mongolian commentaries. In the Buryat monastic tradition it is accepted to divide Tibetan and Mongolian commentaries into four groups: (1) pre-Geluk authors, (2) those penned by great reformer Je Tsongkapa and his disciples, (3) Jamyang Shepa and his contemporaries, (4) authors (17-20th) from Gomang college of Drepung Monastery, Sera Monastery (Lhasa, Central Tibet), monasteries of Amdo (Northeastern Tibet), Mongolia and Buryatia . Phar phyin books kept by Buryat Buddhist laymen usually include: (1) a great collection of Shataskhasrika-Prajnaparamita (Prajnaparamita in One Hundred Thousand Verses), (2) a collection of Ashtasahasrika-Prajnaparamita (Prajnaparamita in Eight Thousand Verses), and (3) Vajrachhedika Prajnaparamita (Diamond Prajnaparamita). Thus, in cultural reality of Buddhist Buryatia, Phar phyin litera- ture exists on two levels: as a scholastic manual and an everyday ritualistic literature. Therefore, the paper forwards a hypothesis that confes- sional texts may have a bivalent character, and the nature of CBC lies in interaction of ritual and philosophy. Key words: Social archaeography, literature Parchin, Buryatia. P. 63. Polezhaeva T.V. “I WENT TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH TO LISTEN TO MUSIC AND SINGING”:TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE NATURE OF A.S. SHISHKOV'S RELIGIOSITY. The article is devoted to A.S. Shishkov, leader of the literary society “The Conversation of the Lovers of the Russian word”. The author sets the task to clarify well-known thesis about dispute among «archaists» and «karamzinists» whether the Admiral had traditional views. In the recent years the philological interpretation of the discussion of «archaists» and «karamzinists » established in the scientific community is being reviewed: it came to realize that the debate should be considered in a wide historical and cultural context and represented as struggle for the national originality. But there is a problem: the leader of the «archa- ists», Shishkov, who contemporaries called «the Old believer», «schismatic» and etc., demonstrated in his private life behaiviour that is not corresponded with traditional religious values. The historical conditions at the turn of XIX century are analyzed in the article. There was the crisis of the religious consciousness of the traditional society. That is why there are numerous examples of the spiritual search at this time. Some representatives of the Russian nobility converted to Catholicism, Protestantism, took a great interest in ideas of mysticism, Freema- sonry. The French Enlightment played a special role in the process of destruction of the traditional Russian culture. The Shishkov’s ideas of preservation of the national identity are explored. The most important points of them are the Orthodoxy and the Church Slavonic language. However, the Shishkov’s private life didn’t rely on the Orthodox values him to advocated. He was married to a non-Orthodox foreigners, attended a Catholic Church and listening to organ music with pleasure, used French expressions common in the society in his speech. In general, Shishkov had normal life like an ordinary nobleman of that time. The conclusion about the problem of describing Shishkov’s religi- osity is made. Although he advocated traditional values he apprehended new rules and norms of the enlightened society. Key words: A.S. Shishkov, orthodoxy, the Enlightment, national identity. P. 67. Ryndina O.M. BIRCH ANUFFS OF THE KHANTY AS A MYTHOLOGICAL TEXT. The paper analyzes the bark snuff of Khanty, the indigenous people of Western Siberia, as a specific set of coding and transmission of information, expressing ethnic picture world, i.e., the essential ideas of the peoples of the world. The general theoretical approaches to the reconstruction of the semantic field of things set out, based on the specifics of the primitive mind, and above all its imagery. The design features of birch snuff and history of their penetration into the culture of the people is described briefly. The semantics of snuff is reconstructed on the basis of the analysis of the mythological, ritual, artistic and social aspects of traditional culture of the Khanty, with the content of the plan which identifies four thing- marks associated with its different manifestations. The first set of birch symbolism is the basis for object-snuff. Birch has a special place in sacral symbolism of traditional Khanty culture and is associated with the Upper world and is associated with - white, light, goodness and prosperity. The second plan of symbolic content of the snuff defines material production - bark, designed to delineate, to limit the middle world, a world of people from other worlds and forms of existence and to protect it from the unpredictable and dangerous outside influence. This plan is well reflected in folklore and ritual practice of Khanty. The third layer of content is associated with ornaments which are running on the walls of birch snuff stamp, as well as with images appearing on the bottom of things. Ornamental motifs are associated with traces of animals, and the images resemble tamgas. Overall decor carries out the information about the Middle World, giving it an industrial and social characteristics: the economic activities of man, his social organization. The fourth plan of snuff determines semantics of the content -
Abstracts 229 tobacco. Consideration of the traditional ways of its use (sniffing, chewing, smoke swallowing, smoking) and technology of preparation showed that the ritual provides a trespassing of a person in another state and thus contributes to the creation of conditions for communication with the spirits, and snuff becomes a symbol of overcoming the boundaries between possible and impossible, a sign of initiation to other forms and dimensions of existence. In general, multi-layered symbolism of birch snuff circle embraces the fundamental questions of existence: the structure of the universe, visible and invisible worlds, and place them in person, including his posthumous existence, and can be regarded as a religious-ideological or mythological text. Key words: ethnic culture, a thing, a symbol. P. 73. Zheravina O.A. THEOLOGY TEACHING IN SALAMANCA: THE ANALYSIS OF REPERTOIRE OF THE SOURCES PRO- VIDED BY UNIVERSITY CHARTERS OF THE XVI CENTURY. The University of Salamanca was founded in 1218. At the end of the XIV century the theological faculty was created here, at which, under the charter of Pope Martin V of 1422 there were 5 chairs. Courses of lectures on theology were read by Dominicans and Franciscans in St. Stephan and St. Francisco monasteries. By the beginning of the XVI century a number of innovations in the field of development of theological thought led to some variety of its directions and rivalry between them. The theology came under influence of the Humanism; the major center of which became Salamanca University. In the conditions of new social reality the theology-juridical school of Salamanca arises; in it the Realism of followers of Scotus and St. Thomas is combined with Nominalism. For the XVI century the University of Salamanca undergoes some reforms, most important of which – that of 1561 and 1594 fixed in the charter of Salamanca detailed curricula of faculties, including the theological. The Vulgate representing Latin translation of the Scripture was the main text for a course of the Bible. The study of Peter Lombard's book of "Sentences" which till the XVI century was used as the main textbook in theology teaching was obligatory. Both Dominicans, and the Franciscans teaching at theological faculty, sought to strengthen influence of their schools, one of which was based on the St. Thomas 's doctrine, the second was closer to Nominalism. Do- minicans persistently resisted to Nominalism introduction in educational process. However after the example of the University of Alcala three chairs of Nominalism were created in Salamanca. At the beginning of the XVI century the nominalism begins to penetrate actively into Spain and for a short time – into Salamanca University. The new stage in life of faculty is connected with Francisco de Vitoria's activity as the teacher of theology in Salamanca and the advocate of the statement at faculty the doctrine of Thomism. Peter Lombard's "Sentences" were replaced by him by "Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas Aquinas. Under Diego de Covarrubias's charter of 1561 "Summa Theologica" was read within eight years, Scotus works – 5 years. The process of strengthening positions of Thomism and replacement of works of other theologians became more and more obvious and widespread in Salamanca University. In concluding for the XVI century the charter of Zuñiga of 1594 the study program and educational literature of theological faculty as a whole are designated. At theological faculty as it is offered in this charter, the Bible, the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, "Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas, Durand and Scotus have to be stud- ied, however in reality overwhelming part of school hours was allocated for learning the book of St. Thomas. Thus, it is possible to say about an exclusive role of Thomism and its victory in fight against Nominalism at the University of Salamanca that consolidated the dominating meaning of the book "Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas as the main manual. For all this Peter Lombard's "Sentences" lose their role in theology teaching, as well as works of Scotus and the other authors. Key words: Spain in the XVI c., University history, University of Salamanca, theology teaching. II. PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN HISTORY P. 80. Tychinskih Z.A. ABOUT THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF COMING KASIMOV MURZAS KUTUMOVS TO SIBERIA. In this ar- ticle author considers the problem of early contacts between the ethnic groups of population of Tatar states - Siberian and Kasimov khanates. The earliest information about contacts between Siberian Tatars and Kasimov Tatars dates from the second half of the XVI century. After "taking" by Muscow state of Siberia khanate Siberian princes received allotments in Kasimov khanate. The last Kasimov rulers were princes Seid Burgan and Fatima who became descendants Siberian khanate. After the abolition of Kasimov kingdom at the end of the XVII century. the large groups of Tatars migrated to other regions, including Siberia. Archival materials and ethnographic researchs report about individual natives of Kasimov khanate, one of whom was Prince Semeney (Isen) Aganin that was the head of the well-known Siberian genus of murzas Kutumov in the XVIII-XX centuries. In the Siberian documents Isen Ishmametev (Aganin) same seed, a native of Kasimov begins men- tioned in the second half – the end of the XVII century. On the basis of archival materials we have been able to show that the race is de- scended from Kutumov Kasimov murzas Aganin. Father of Prince Isen (Semeney) Aganin was Ishmamet Murza (Aganin). Aganinۥs ances- tral possessions in the first half of the XVII century. were in the Kadoma district. Mirza Ishmamet in 1652 together with "his children for his bogomerzkih affairs, for the ruin of churches and desecration of images" was executed. After the execution of the prince with children, ap- parently Aganin principality ceased to exist. But, as we see, is not the whole race of Aganin ceased to exist and, at least, Ishmametev Aganin managed to escape punishment, and he found himself in Siberia. His son (Ish) Mamet Semeneev, was in the number of five Sluzhilye Tatars who received the highest salaries in Tobolsk, namely – 15 rubles. Further information about the descendants of Semeneya Aganin dates back to the first half of the XVIII century. and associated with the name of Chura Kutumov, who for a certain time from 1732 was the head of Sluzhilye Tatars in Tobolsk, he was managed all of Sluzhilye Tatars. Members of the genus Kutumova long held high positions in the Sibe- rian Tatar Cossacks regiment. Unlike other members of the Siberian Tatar nobility who quickly lost their former rank and position, Kutu- movs for a long time retain their position and rank , despite the fact that Kulmametev clan active policy was aimed at the eliminating of potential rivals. Key words: Siberia, Kasimov murzas, ethnic contacts, Sluzhilye Tatars. P. 84. Semikolenov M.V. THE PROBLEM OF THE LAND OF ENSURING MIGRANTS IN SIBERIA (ON MATERIALS OF THE NEWSPAPER «EASTERN OUTLOOK»). A special place in the periodical press of Siberia took the newspaper «the Eastern review». The leaders of the social-political movement – Oblastnichestvo G.N Potanin and N.M Yadrinjev used newspaper, as a platform for advocacy. In their artistic-publicistic texts Siberia appeared not usual «appendage» of the center and the edge of unprecedented riches and unlimited op- portunities, sleep in the first place of agricultural development. Siberia according to their belief was able to turn from a «country of exile» and «the Kingdom of bureaucratic arbitrariness» in the prosperous region. In connection with the growth of the resettlement movement of Central problem is the issue of land security peasants in Siberia earth. Rising shaft of the resettlement movement of the 1880-ies, has forced the government to undertake large-scale works on land allocation. However, the state land survey was lagging behind life, and the plans of
Abstracts 230 local surveyors do not correspond to the reality. N.M. Progress pointed to the important feature that the Siberian многоземелье was in fact the unknown and it is extremely doubtful. Lands in Siberia a lot, but these lands under forests, bogs, salt-marsh, etc. In the opinion of the областников, before the start of land reform, it was necessary to first study the local conditions in Siberia connected first of all with the con- dition of the soil, peculiarities of climate and their influence on the agricultural development of Siberia, as in the relocation of peasants in Siberia nature-geographic factor was not taken into account. Government officials are poorly represented a real land Fund of Siberia. The issue of land security migrants actively discussed on the pages of the newspaper «Eastern review» until the mid-1890s. There were put the most important issues facing the government in the organization of the resettlement movement. Focusing the attention on the fact that the activities undertaken by the officials did not solve the problem empowering migrants necessary land parcel. Key words: periodical press, resettlement, land security, natural and geographical factors. P. 88. Larkov N.S. POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF A. ADRIANOV DURING THE CIVIL WAR. The article concerns some little-known aspects of the biography of Alexander Adrianov, Siberian scientist, public and political figure, talented journalist, the editor of “Sibirskaya Zhizn (Siberian Life)” newspaper that was one of the most powerful in pre-revolutionary Siberia. Published and archive resources allow to conclude that after the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917, A. Adrianov started an irreconcilable fight against them using his publishing activ- ity and illegal methods as well. But in historical literature this side of his political life is pictured only through scattered facts and references. A. Adrianov was one of the most active members of the so-called “Potanin’s circle” in Tomsk, participated in development and practical application of its political platform. In spring of 1918 he contacted with anti-bolshevisk underground organizations in Tomsk, at the end of April he met the delegation of general V.Flug that illegally came to Siberia under order of generals M. Alekseev and L. Kornilov who formed the white movement on the South of Russia. After Soviet rule was overthrown, he was in secret correspondence with prime-minister of the Provisional Siberian Government P. Vologodskii and commander of Siberian army A. Grishin-Almazov. The article contains the fragments of Adrianov’s letters that show his attempts to influence the political course and cadre of Siberian governing institutions in 1918- 19, his part in closure of the newspaper “Rabocheye Znamya” in Tomsk. Being a deputy of Siberian regional duma, he ran private meetings of its members who were in Tosmk in June-July, during duma sessions he was a head of joint group of the oblastniks and non-party deputies, tried to exert an influence upon changing the staff of duma that consisted mostly of the members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party and its political line but didn’t have any success. At the end he actively encouraged its dissolve. Contrary to some historians beliefs, when admiral A. Kolchak, the Supreme Ruler of Russia, came to power, A. Adrianov didn’t belong to those who unconditionally supported military dicta- torship regime, he critically assessed personal and professional qualities of its representatives, including high-rankers. When military clique tried to interfere into the policy of editorial staff of the “Siberian Life”, he had conflicts with representatives of military rule. Nevertheless, till the end of his life he and his newspaper stayed on anti-bolshevik position. After Soviet rule was restored in December of 1919, A. Adri- anov became one of the first victims of Bolshevik terror. According to the decision of Tomsk Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counter- revolution he was executed by shooting at the beginning of March, 1920. Key words: A.V. Adrianov, Siberia, Civil war. P. 97. Kim M.Y. SETTLMENT OF KOREANS IN KARAGANDA’S COAL-BASIN IN THE 2nd HALF OF 1930th YEARS. The article is devoted to the process of settlement of Koreans in Kazakhstan in 1930s. The problem of deportation during Stalin’s period still remains one of the actual subjects of historical research. Deportation was not an invention of Stalin’s leadership. The forced migration of the whole peoples took place even before the establishment of the Soviet Union and in the 20th century in the so called democratic countries of Europe and USA as well. However, the processes which took place in 1930s, undoubtedly require the modern reasonable study approaches. One of the first peoples deported to the republic were Koreans. Under the decree of SNK USSR and CK VKP “About deportation of Korean popula- tion from the territories bordering Far East regions” as of August 21, 1937, one more political action of the forced deportation was realized. In the end of October of the same year the People’s comissar of internal affairs of the USSR Yezhov in his letter addressed to Molotov V.M., the chairman of SNK, wrote that on October 25, 1937 the deportation of Koreans from Far East areas was completed. According to this document, 36442 families or 171781 people were sent out of the area. 16272 families (76535 people) out of them were accommodated in Uzbek SSR and 20170 families (95256 people) – in Kazakh SSR. 3073 families (76535 people) were deported to Karaganda region where they were allocated in all districts of the region. Almost all the departments were involved in the preparation to the arrival of the deported people. Karaganda Oblpotrebsoyuz (Regional consumers’ union) and Obltorg (Regional trade department) were assigned to organize a chain of shops and kiosks in the places of migrants’ settlement and the stations of their unloading, and supply them with food and household provi- sion. Oblzdravotdel (Regional public health department) had to make sanitary treatment of migrants and provide the medical equipment for them. In its turn, Oblono (Regional department of public education) was assigned to involve all Korean children into the education process, and even to open new schools in areas where they didn’t exist before. Because initially the points of location of Korean villages’ economic centers were unknown, the construction of the planned objects for the migrants’ settlement was not performed. Thus, the social and living conditions of Koreans sent to Kazakhstan in the second half of 1930th years are reconstructed in the article. The number of the contingent, their living conditions, medical and cultural service, and meals conditions are presented. The process of social-living and economic adapta- tion of Koreans in the republic is considered. Key words: migration, Koreans, Kazakhstan, social and living conditions. P. 101. Shevlyakov A.S. PARTY CLIARNING OF RURAL ORGANIZATION OF ALL-UNION COMMUNIST PARTY (BOLSHE- VIKS) (VKP(b)) IN SIBERIA (1933-1935). At the time of the global restructuring of the village, the ruling party was in need of capable rural organizations that could take strict control of the social, political, and economic life of the collective farmers (kolkhoz). However rural party organizations were small and their network was narrow. Moreover, there was growing dissatisfaction with Stalin’s methods of collec- tivization among some rural communists and even district heads because those methods had made the situation not better, but worse. Inten- tions to hide corns from the state, create “black vaults”, downplay the information about productivity of land, distribute the grain according to workdays before the plan of state granaries was fulfilled and etc. appeared. The state of rural and district party organizations, facts of ris- ing dissatisfaction with the permanent violence caused concern to the leaders of VKP(b). Political leaders of the country saw a way out of that situation in massive cleaning of the party. The cleaning of 1933-1935 had a great scope. Wide range of criterions allowed to question party membership of the heads of collective farms (kolkhoz), the Machine and Tractor Stations (MTS) and state farms (sovkhoz) that didn’t hit the plan of state granaries and, therefore, deviated from the party line. Strengthening of the party organizations was made in a way that
Abstracts 231 leaders of VKP(b) needed. The development of inner-party democracy, independence and creative political activity were out of the question. Using administrative methods, party institutions made rural communists obey the general line of VKP(b). Centralism and strict discipline became the prevailing features of the relationship inside the party. Any disagreement with “the general line” was considered to be hostile activity. Thus, the party itself gained totalitarian features. Key words: party, cleaning, Siberia. P. 106. Fedosov E.A. OUTER ORLD VIEWED BY SOVIET PROPAGANDA OF THE 1950s – EARLY 1960s IN POSTERS AND CARICATURES. Soviet Russia was the first state in the world history, which began the formation of the socialistic society. After victory over the Third Reich, a real perspective to spread communism in other countries opened for the USSR. It was the reason for ideological con- frontation with its former allies: the USA, Great Britain and France. With the beginning of the Cold War soviet propaganda started to pay a special attention to the foreign world in all spheres and aspects. The range of the ideological allies and opponents underwent several phases of transformation. The process of the priority values definition had generally ended by the early 1950s. Among the opponents there were included in the first place the USA and other NATO countries. FRG should also be emphasized as one of the main German-related challenge; and Israel as the principal ally of the imperialism in the Near East. Soviet propaganda never «fought» against common people. On the con- trary, the government aimed efforts at demonstrating the society openness for the representatives of all countries, including capitalist. Hold- ing the World Festival of Youth and Students in 1957 in the USSR became the triumph of ideas of internationalism and global peace. There was principally no division into «our» and «alien» countries at that time. The main method by which propaganda passed on the ideas of soli- darity was the image of the representatives of three major races and making use of socialistic and western symbols together. Preference in positive image of the foreigner was given to citizens of the European popular democratic states and communist countries of the Eastern Asia, whereas all the arsenal of the political satire was directed towards «traditional» ideological opponents of the USSR, caricatures being the most essential part of it. Based on the caricatures from the newspapers of early 1960s bright and expressive description of the main capitalis- tic countries as they appeared for the average soviet citizen was created. Propaganda reached an unprecedented regional width after including the Third World countries in the political orbit of the USSR in the late 1950s. Their unequal struggle against former metropolis and outer dependence acquired an important ideological loading. The soviet press described them in heroic mood. A whole series of emotional posters with native patriots and sharp caricatures on colonialists acted under auspices of the UN mission became a response to the events in those countries. In the first two decades of the Cold War in propaganda there appeared mass of images and slogans. Together they constitute the whole concept of international relations. According to the soviet official propaganda the USSR did not appear a totally closed country despite of the Iron Curtain and strict ideological limits, and the outlook of a common soviet citizen, his views about outer world remained rather wide and many-sided enhanced by the feeling of personal implication and responsibility for the global processes. Key words: soviet propaganda, international situation, caricatures. P. 110. Solovenko I. S. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INSTABILITYAS A GROWTH FACTOR PROTEST MOVEMENT MINERS KUZBASSDURING THE TRANSITION TO MARKET (1992-1999). The widespread protest movement Kuzbass miners during the transition to a market economy was a consequence not only failures in the process of restructuring the coal industry, but also the crisis in the political life of the country and region. Vertical power was weak, made to Uregei-regulation of conflict measures were not consistent, sometimes contradictory, and produced the opposite effect. Administration of the Kemerovo region strongly demanded an agreement on the delimitation of powers between it and the federal center, but to no avail. Mining community was split into supporters and opponents of socio- economic policy of the Kremlin. This has greatly contributed to the confrontation of two industry trade unions - NPD and SPRUE. In the struggle for leadership, they staged demonstrations shares, including oc-stnogo character. Political uncertainty has stimulated the use of miners to protest potential in the struggle for power by various political parties and movements. The most noticeable-mi in the political life of the workers of the Kemerovo region in the 1990s. were the LDPR and the Communist Party. With the active participation of the workers were first put forward political demands: resignation of the President and the Government, heads of regional administration. The obvious reason for the radicalization of protest was the ineffectiveness of the miners' regional and local authorities, especially in social and economic issues. Trying to Russian President Boris Yeltsin to strengthen political stability in the region, by changing the head of the Administration of the Kemerovo region, M.B. Kislyuk on the popular politician in the province – A.G. Tuleyev summer of 1997, was temporary. Therefore, during the All-Russian "rail war" in May-July 1998 the miners of the Kuzbass basic demands presented to the Government and the President of Russia. In general, the relationship of socio-political unrest and protest movement of the Kuzbass coal miners during the transition to a market economy indicates a high degree of dependence on social and economic processes in the region from the policy of the federal government. "Experimental" nature of reforms in the coal industry is not reinforced by additional political power to administratsii Kemerovo region, a situation which gave rise to a chronic backlog of politics from the economy and social sphere of the miners. Key words: transition to a market economy, politics, instability, Kuzbass, miners; protests. P. 113. Shirko T.I. ELECTIONS OF CHIEF EXECUTIVESOF SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 1990-2012: EVO- LUTION OF THE LEGISLATION AND PROVIDING ELECTORAL RIGHTS OF CITIZENS. With adoption of the Declaration on the state sovereignty on June 12, 1990 in the Russian Federation development of the legislation regulating procedure of formation of institute of the chief executive of the subject of Federation begins. In total during the period from 1990 to 2012 two tendencies connected with elections of the head of the region by direct vote of citizens and its appointment as the President or legislative assembly of an appropriate subject of Federation fought. With adoption of the Declaration on the state sovereignty on June 12, 1990 in the Russian Federation development of the legislation regulating procedure of formation of institute of the chief executive of the subject of Federation begins. In total during the period from 1990 to 2012 two tendencies connected with elections of the head of the region by direct vote of citizens and its appointment as the President or legislative assembly of an appropriate subject of Federation fought. Key words: executive power, subjects of Federation, legislation, electoral right. III. PROBLEMS OF WORLD HISTORY P. 118. Dankov A.G CENTRAL ASIA IN 2025: FROM UNCERTAINTY TO CRISIS. This article provides a review of the problem of forecasting of political and economic situation in Central Asia till 2025. Author tries to analyze key trends in political, economic and social
Abstracts 232 life of this post-soviet region: closed political systems, weak social institutes, economic systems dependent on state of the global market, increase of urban population, interethnic relations, problems of national minorities, borders’ and enclaves’ problems etc. One of the most important problems of forecasting in international affairs is uncertainty. Author provides main scenarios of situations in Central Asia: new civil war in Afghanistan after withdrawal of the international troops in 2014, new political crisis in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, conflict be- tween Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and “Kyrgyzation” of Kazakhstan. Author also tries to analyze advantages and disadvantages of all this scenarios. Key words: Central Asia, prognosis, international affairs, postsoviet area. P. 124. Wang Guohong. THE IMPACT OF RUSSIA’S NEW SOCIAL VALUES ON ITS EUROPEAN POLICY. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has been undertaking three stages in terms of foreign policy --- pro-western capitalist countries, multi-polar de- velopment and functional purpose-based tendency. As the same time, her relation with the European countries has also experienced three phrases --- depending them, balancing with the Eastern countries and cooperative and competitive coexistence. On one hand, many political, economic, military factors have played major roles in the making of Russian foreign policies with European countries. Besides, the cultural factor is also a key issue in such a process. The cultural factors may cover the geopolitics-based superpower chauvinism, different values held by Russians and other Europeans and the neo-social schools in modern Russia. Therefore, it is hard to determine that Russian foreign policies were made following one single theory or school of ideas. The Russian government has adopted the revival social values for its cru- cial reference in making the foreign policies lately. Among them the two special elements nationalism and neo-conservatism are growing and developing while the Western world’s influence is fading away. Russian functional foreign policy is made as a result of the new trends. Rus- sia cooperates with European countries actively and intends to protect its profits as the same time. This paper analyzes the influence of na- tionalism and neo-conservatism as cultural factors to the Russian foreign policy making. The neo-conservatism calls for the protection of the national profits and the consideration of functional purposes in foreign policy making. Russian policies with European countries should indi- cate such inclination and bilateral policies are made on the basis of mutual profit protection. The growing and revival of nationalism is an- other great impact towards the Russian foreign policies making with European countries. The nationalism and neo-conservatism causes Rus- sian government’s attitude shift from harsh to friendly. These cultural factors help Russia stick to its original plans and not to yield to com- promise. Thus foreign collision and conflicts occur occasionally. Russian government firmly believes that both Russia and other European countries share common ground of cultural traditions and consider Europe as its important partner. However, Russia will not just copy and follow European development path, she will uphold her own unique points of view in political reforms and foreign policies dealing with world affairs and European affairs. Key words: foreign policy, cultural factor, nationalism, neo-conservatism, impact P. 127. Vedyashkina V.A. LEGAL REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Among un- economic factors, providing international economic strategy and business realization of state, one of the most important is legal factor. In the Republic of Korea was built legal basis promoting to development of international economic relations, attraction of foreign investors and simplifying international cooperation in economy. At once the laws protect national market and domestic producers by customs and tax regu- lation. These measures promoting to effectiveness of international business of the Republic of Korea. In the Republic of Korea was built congenial investment climate is supported by state and legal basis, oriented to attraction of foreign partners and capital. At the same time the state takes care of national economy protection, there are hard protectionist measures, especially in such branches as agriculture, service and automotive industry. Key words: international business, legal regulation of economy. P. 132. Shvedova I.A. THE PROCESS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN CHINA. In recent decades, higher education system in China has undergone considerable changes. Implementation of the policy of openness, education reform, the WTO, and the inclusion of China in the processes of globalization have contributed to the internationalization of Chinese education. These processes are an essential element of the response to the economic processes taking place both in China and abroad. The process of interna- tionalization of Chinese education includes joint educational and research programs, the Chinese and foreign universities, increasing educa- tional exchanges and the increasing number of foreign students in China and Chinese students abroad, increase academic mobility of faculty and development of the distribution network of Chinese language abroad. This article focuses on the processes occurring in mainland China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau because of the specific administra- tive regulations and processes of social and economic development of these regions). In addition, the article examines the impact of the in- ternationalization of education in China in the Russian education. Key words: China, higher education, students, internationalization of Chinese education. P. 139. Rumyantsev V.P. TO THE QUESTION OF AMERICAN FRONTIER: JOHN F. KENNEDY AND THE PROGRAM OF “THE NEW FRONTIER” (THEORETICAL AND FOREIGN POLICY ASPECTS) The author of the article attempts to highlight a program of "The New Frontier" of administration of John F. Kennedy from the standpoint of the theory of the American frontier. The term "frontier" was widely distributed in the socio-political discourse of the United States mostly due to the concept of American historian Frederick J. Turner. In the narrow sense, the frontier was understood as a movable boundary between the territory, settled by residents of North American colonies / states and the lands of the Indians - the border, constantly shifting from east to west, the place of contact of savagery and civilization. But the frontier had not only geographical but also political, cultural and economic dimensions. We will consider the frontier, not as a popular metaphor, but rather as an archetype of American civilization, for the following reasons. First of all, the frontier has a certain stability, which manifests itself in the life of the United States throughout its history in myths, folklore and popular culture. In the second place, the frontier has its own system of symbols that causes well-defined images of the American audience. Thirdly, the frontier can be manifested at the level of the unconscious as can be seen from the example John F. Kennedy’s speech at the Democratic National Convention in 1960. Using a vivid metaphor, an orator may be, without knowing it, under the influence of a certain archetype. And, fourthly, the frontier, having a specific energy, is able to exert a strong influence on human emotions. Frontier theory acquired in the 1950s additional connotation. Relations which in the XIX century were perceived as a contact between the "civilized" and "primitive" peoples in the middle of the twentieth century had transformed into the relationship between the "free West" and "developing world". Such initiatives of
Abstracts 233 administration of John F. Kennedy as "Peace Corps", "Green Berets", the landing of the space crew on the Moon corresponded with the traditions of the conquest of the "Wild West" and the constant expansion of the American frontier. Most clearly the preservation of civilization and cultural values f the frontier in the history of the United States demonstrates such initiative of Kennedy's team like the "Peace Corps". H. Wofford (junior), special assistant to John F. Kennedy declared: “We are a pioneering people, with the frontier still in our blood…. But ever since our geographical frontier reached its manifest destiny the Pacific Ocean has stopped and frustrated us…. But most of the new frontiers are overseas, in the southern continents and we have not seen how to translate the 19th century advise “Go West, Young Man” into 20th century action”. The idea of "Peace Corps" reflects the aspirations of the Kennedy’s administration to find new tools of American foreign policy. Kew words: John F. Kennedy, USA, frontier. P. 149. Kovganov S.J. PROBLEM OF SECURITY IN CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL PROCESSES. The article analyzes the substance of security as social phenomena using methodological tools of cultural studies, specifically activity approach in defi- nition of culture. Security is evaluated as framework of activities to prevent entropy in processes of social systems in context of their cultural development. Therefore activity performs as essence of security, and ethnic culture as embodiment of machinery of its implementation. All attempts to level the global cultural diversity within developments of “westernization” based on europocentric approach bring the danger for humankind in sense that they can liquidate diverse historically grounded mechanisms of organization of social activities and safeguarding of security. In consequence these attempts may threaten the global security itself. The policies of solution of contemporary global issues on the base of political principles elaborated by European civilization in the course of cultural development of the West, and exemplified by pecu- liar European version of globalization without consideration of historical experience and interests of other parts of humankind are fraught with global cultural catastrophes. This is not only background of different contemporary armed conflicts, it is the deadlock for solution of really important global problems. Key words: culture, security, geopolitics, extremism. P. 153. Anufriev K.S. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA’S QING DYNASTY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA. Principal trends of the Qing empire’s policy in Central Asia have been shown in the paper. This policy’s motives as well as periods in its development have been ana- lyzed. Necessity of elimination of the threat, perceived by the ruling Chinese dynasty from the north-west direction, was the fundamental reason underlying large-scale expansion to Central Asia initiated by the Manchurians, who had conquered China in the 17th century and had founded a new emperor’s dynasty – Qing. The effective elimination of this threat was only possible by the prevention of the formation in Central Asia of a powerful state, which was very likely to happen due to consolidation processes taking place in Mongol khanates, bordering to the Qing empire. Thus, despite the expansionist methods, the Qings resorted to, their policy in Central Asia during its initial period (prior to the conquest of the Zhungarian khanate) should be seen as defensive in its profound nature. In the course of the conquest of the Zhun- garian khanate the Qings’ policy passed to the second period of its development. This period should be characterized by the absolute pre- dominance of expansionist motives underlying the foreign policy pursued by the Qing government. This second period of the development of the Qings’ policy in Central Asia was the period when their army conquered East Turkestan and was preparing to rush further in the western direction. However, very soon after the conquest of the Zhungarian khanate and East Turkestan the Qings had to abandon their plans of the all-out expansion in Central Asia. Their policy in this region, despite their own will, entered the third, final, period in its development. Dur- ing this period the Qings still continued aggressive rhetoric against their neighbors in Central Asia, but the ultimate goal of their policy in the region became retention of the previous territorial acquisitions. As the result of Muslim uprisings in 1860 – 1870s the Qings had temporarily lost control over Xinjiang. But they managed to re-conquest this region by 1879 and officially establish the empire’s border in Central Asia in 1881 by signing of the Russian-Chinese Saint-Petersburg treaty. Despite the point of view of a significant number of Chinese historians that this treaty significantly encroached legitimate rights of the Qing empire, we believe that, taking into consideration severe crisis of the Qing empire by the end of the 19th century, stabilization of the Qing’s position in Central Asia as it was made by the Saint-Petersburg treaty should be seen as a positive result of the policy pursued by the Qings in this region since the middle of the 17th century. Key words: Central Asia, China, the Qings. P. 158. Shemetova T.A. TASKS AND CHARACTER OF “NEUTRALITY” POLICY OF CHINESE PROVINCE OF XINJIANG IN REGARDS TO THE EVENTS IN RUSSIA IN 1917 – 1920. The October Revolution, the change of power and a prolonged period of insta- bility made their adjustments of trading and economic relations between Russia and the largest Chinese province of Xinjiang. In particular, the Chinese party stopped following the main clauses of Petersburg Treaty of 1881. Frankly speaking, it should be noted that Soviet Russia either didn’t follow all the previous agreements with China. At the same time we should underline that the agreement obligations on the terri- tory of Russia were violated both by the Bolsheviks and by the White Guards. Taking these circumstances into consideration and being really afraid of spreading the ideas of bolshevism throughout the territory of the province the dutszyun (governor) of Xinjiang Jan Tszesin declared the “neutrality” policy in regard to the opposing forces in Russia after the beginning of the Civil War there. Having declared the “neutrality” to the events in Russia Jan Tszesin didn’t deny comparatively active political dialogues with the representatives of both opposing sides. The trading operations were also fulfilled both by the representatives of the Soviet Power and by their rivals in the name of Temporary Siberian and later on by Kolchak’s governments. The deviation from the declared “neutrality” policy in regard to the events in Russia had been marked just since its declaration by the governor of the province in 1917 – 1920. This policy allowed Xinjiang to stay apart from large scale military events and continue trading operations with Russia, with both opposing parties, by the way. It gave Soviet Russia, especially the population of the frontier territories cut from the centre and controlled both by the Bolsheviks and by the White Guards in certain periods, the opportunity to get food and industrial goods. Key words: Xinjiang, Russia, “neutrality” policy. P. 162. Anop A.F. THE FAILURE OF THE BRITISH POLICY IN THE GREECO-TURKISH WAR OF 1919–1922. The article tells about the failure of the political course of Lloyd George’s Coalition Government pursued by them until the final stage of the Greeco-Turkish War of 1919-1922. The study of the materials contained in the Documents on British foreign policy 1919-1939 edited by Professor W.N. Medlicott of Oxford University, in particular from volume 17, covering the events of the period from January 1921 till September 1922, Official Report of Parliamentary Debates of the House of Commons , as well as those contained in the works of a number of British histori-
Abstracts 234 ans, telling about the meetings of the British Cabinet held in September – October of 1922 during the Chanak crisis, suggests the conclusion, that the British Government made every effort to preserve as much as possible from the Treaty of Sevres, enhance Greek military forces, and was ready to start military operations against the army of the Kemalists. The worsening of the relations with France and Italy who had con- cluded separate agreements with Turkey, military preparations of the Cabinet, the risk of the open military clash with the Turkish forces caused dissatisfaction of some of the ministers of the Cabinet, parliamentarians and political quarters. The failure of the Near East political course, and the dissatisfaction in the home policy offered a pretext for the leadership of the Conservative Party to break a coalition and pass over to the traditional way of the governance of the country. Key words: Great Britain, Middle East policy, Chanak crisis. P. 171. Konkov D.S. THE VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM OF TOLOUSE IN 418-450 - WHETHER IT WAS: THE OFFICIAL STATUS OF THE VISIGOTHS IN AQUITAINE. The article is devoted to the period of 418-450 in the history of the Visigoths and the Roman Em- pire. At this time, from the point of view of some researchers, there was so-called kingdom of Toulouse of the Visigoths. The article deals with the question of whether the settlement Visigoths in Aquitaine in this period had or acquired the status of the kingdom. The data of the written sources, covering a specified period in the history of the Visigoths, and searches of national and foreign historians and experts re- viewed, analyzed and compared to achieve this issue. The problem of the concept of the kingdom of Toulouse is seen as a source study and in the institutional perspective. The article is reconstructed the objective and subjective factors behind the transformation of the status of the Visigoths in imperial Aquitaine based on the data sources and historiography. In 418 there was a settlement of the Goths in the Roman prov- ince Aquitaine Second in South Gaul with their capital at Toulouse. Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in modern historiography is considered as one of the first barbarian kingdoms in the territory of the Empire, set an example for other similar entities. But some problems are still debatable, for example, a nature of this kingdom and its institutional design. Making of the concept of the kingdom of Toulouse reflected the transformation of social and historical mentality of the early medieval chroniclers, but not real institutionalization of new power structures and changing the Visigoths. The period of history of the Visigoths, which is called the kingdom of Toulouse in the historiography, actually was the formative period of the kingdom. The article examines the period of 418-450 years, associated with the initial stage of staying of the Visigoths in Aquitaine and with their leader Teodorid or Theodoric I. Visigoths, as well as other barbarian units on the territory of the em- pire, were largely related to the nature and preferences of the current leader, so such a statement is relevant time frame for this issue. Theo- doric tried to take all the advantages of the Visigothic situation as Roman federates-settlers, and for this purpose he tried to maintain and develop a certain distance between the Romans and the Visigoths, used all possible ways of putting pressure on the Government of the Ro- man Empire. This balancing on the edge of "friend-enemy", blackmail and extortion benefits made Visigothic policy in relations with the Empire in 418-450 contradictory at first sight. However, actually it was always aimed at maintaining friendly relations and did not mean the desire for independence in any form. Thus, fundamental changes in the status of the Visigoths and their identity did not happen during the era of Theodoric I. Key words: The kingdom of Tolouse, Visigoths, the barbarians, the late Roman Empire, Theodoric I, Theodorid, Galla Placidia, Aetius, the power institutions, federates, political identity, barbaric kingdoms. IV. PROBLEMS METHODOLOGY OF HISTORY P. 178. Gilmintinov R.R. THE ISSUE OF MEMORY IN THE NOVEL “MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN” BY SALMAN RUSHDIE. Sal- man Rushdie is a British-American novelist of Indian origin. He was born in a rich Muslim family in Bombay in 1947, almost at the same time with of independence of India. Bombay is a special city, like Babylon, melting pot, where a lot of cultures, languages and traditions are mixed. The childhood in Bombay had great influence on the way of Rushdie’s thinking. Moreover, at the age of 14 Rusdie left India and moved to Britain. He graduated from Cambridge University specializing in History. Then he worked at a newspaper, advertising agency and theater, but he did not succeed in any of those kinds of activity. His first novel, Grimus, a part-science fiction tale, was generally ignored by the public and literary critics. Borderline condition of Salman Rusdie should have some crisis symptoms, which may be overcome using the process of “Reminiscence”. The novel “Midnight’s children” seems to be such a process. The novel is mostly autobiographical and it con- tains bright picture of the Indian and Pakistani history of the second half of the 20th century. Besides, this text includes a huge stratum of mythology. Using conceptions of P. Nora, M. Halbwachs and B. Averin we can make a conclusion that a human being may remember not only his sensory experience but also imagination and even overstep the limits of personality. The following incident is in favor of the fact that the story of the “Midnight’s children” became a part of the author’s memory: 20 years after the completion of the novel Rushdie with his son visited Bombay and passing through the sites of his childhood he was telling about events, which had happened not with him, but with the characters of the novel. According to I. Koznowa it is necessary to distinguish between the archaic memory and the memory of modern society. At first, the archaic memory is collective, spontaneous as circular time functions. The past is unchangeable and sacred. The contem- porary memory to the large extend is subjective, deliberate and specially organized, thus time is linear. Certainly, Salman Rushdie is a bearer of the contemporary memory but in the novel “Midnight’s Children” he attempts to show the peculiarities of the archaic memory. It is personified in the character of the boatman Tai, nobody remember his age, even Tai himself. Tai saw the mountain’s birth, remembered Alexander the Great and Isa, who was not crucified “indeed” but moved to the Himalayas to spend the rest of his life. Salman Rushdie tries not to write a history, but to perform an act of “Reminiscence”. The book “Midnight’s Children” is not about the past, it is about the present, first of all about things, which form the author as a personality at the moment of writing. Key words: memory, history, S. Rushdie. P. 183. Syrov V.N. WHAT HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS DO WE NEED: ON THE METHOLOGY OF APPROACH AND PRACTICE OF USE. The article deals with the problems connected with the analysis of the nature of historical consciousness and its social and cultural value. An attempt was made to clarify the conceptual system, used in the study of this subject in the research tradition. It is noted that the author's interest is focused around the question of the relationships between academic history and historical consciousness and his- torical consciousness and historical memory. It is shown that the question of the relationship between academic history and historical con- sciousness is determined by the nature of tasks, namely the context of determining the limits of historical consciousness. The solution of the problem of the relationship between historical consciousness and historical memory depends on the acceptance of certain philosophical posi- tions on the nature of knowledge in general. If we assume that the historical (and any other) fact does not depend on theoretical precondi-
Abstracts 235 tions, the distinction of historical memory and historical consciousness retains value. The memory can then be interpreted as a repository of facts, and historical consciousness - as a set of methods of their interpretation. If we accept the position that the historical facts are caused by the theoretical preconditions, giving distinction between them becomes meaningless. On the basis of the analysis of works of J. Assmann, P. Thompson, P. Nora it is shown that concept «historical memory» can keep the value in the contexts of comparison of oral and written his- tory, continuity and gaps in conveying historical tradition, spontaneity of emergence or artificiality of formation of historical consciousness. It is shown that if we recognize that our ideas of the past are conditioned by conceptual schemes, it allows us to treat the historical con- sciousness, above all, as a set of ways of understanding of the past, not as a mere sum of remembered facts. On the basis of the analysis of works of J. Rüsen perspectives of defining the cultural value of historical consciousness are outlined. As a methodological basis J. Rüsen's idea of the role of traumatic experiences in the formation of heuristic forms of historical consciousness is used. It is shown that the effective- ness of historical consciousness should be associated with its ability to overcome ideologization and mythologization the past. This possibil- ity is seen in understanding of the past as historical experience. An interpretation of the concept of “historical experience” is offered. It is shown that the interpretation of the past as an experience is its description as a clash of goals and objectives put by the historical actors with- out foreseeing the circumstances and, naturally, the finale is uncertain for them. Key words: historical consciousness, historical memory, historicism, historical experience. V. PROBLEMS OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY P. 191. Ushntskiy V V. DISAPPEARED TRIBE OF THE MERKITS: TO THE PROBLEM OF THEIR ORIGIN AND DESCEN- DANTS. In history of the Central Asia there were a number of nomadic peoples whese ethnic origins is a subject of scientific dispute in the Turkic - Mongol republics. The Gurvan-Merkits are allocated among them; on them there is no serious publication; except A.V.Tivanenko's popular scientific book (Tivanenko, 1992). Meanwhile, as Tivanenko notices, the Merkits deserve the serious attitude, as the ethnos, shown the strongest resistance to Chingiskhan, the conqueror of the World, and people owing to which some Mongol khans Yuchi, Turakin, Gu- yuk-khan originated from. Ethnonym Merkit generates from totem designations of verkut (an eagle-golden eagle). So far as in Turkic lan- guages process of transition is widespread, proceeding from it it is possible to receive berkut (a golden eagle) burgud, merkut, murgud. Thus, the origin of the ethnonym merkit from totem word merkit is represented inconvenient. However on the Altay material, teleut stock of Merkits, also called Merkit, considered itself as came from a white-headed eagle, the eagle was considered as a bird of the owner of the Sky, the constant assistant of the shaman (Zuev, 1970 : 85). Let's make up conclusions. Merkits can belong to descendants of Mokhe-Mukrins, who was under powerful influence of Turks, then of Mongol-speaking ethnoses. As for a language accessory of all described groups, it is represented that languages of the Tungus, Mongols, Yakuts, Manchurians were in constant contact, interacted each other, assimilating the bearers of ancient Paleoasian languages, therefore now it is impossible to determine to what language group those or other medieval ethnoses could belong. Key words: Ethnogenesis, turks, merkits, ethnonyms, sakha, mokhe, eagle totem, tungus, paleoasiatics, mongols, Chinggis Khan. P. 196. Tekeeva L.K. COSMOGONIC CONCEPTIONS OF THE TURK-SPEAKING PEOPLES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS. My- thology is one of the most ancient forms of cognition of the world, developed at the early stages of the development of mankind. The peculi- arity of mythological conceptions of the turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus is the presence of the two systems of myths: ancient Caucasian and ancient Turk. This pecularity has left traces on all structural components of material and spiritual culture of the people which are carriers of Turkic traditions in North Caucasian region. A component of cosmogonic myths is the conception of the origin of the man- kind, of sex, of some peoples, tribes etc. Turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus realized the creation of the world as the beginning of time and space and interpreted as an infinite sequence of the beginning, having no end. An important role in cosmogonic conceptions of the turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus was occupied by water which the specified people treated very carefully. Apparently, such sig- nificance of the cult of water has developed the double attitude to it at the specified ethnoses. On the one hand water was considered as the beginning, the initial condition of all real, an equivalent to primeval chaos. On the other hand, the water deity was treated with big respect as life, fertility and productivity of the earth depended on it. Turkic outlook taught that any system of the Universe consists of three parts. All three zones of the Universe - heavenly, terrestrial and underground are in their turn, subdivided into visible and invisible (abstract). The be- ginning of the Universe for turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus, as well as for their ancestors, was a sky. The significance of the god of the sky Tejri (ancient Turk Tengri), heading Karachai-Balkar pagan pantheon testifies it. We believe that Tejri has not been created immediately, but was in the process of formation, changing and being updated. As a result the last phase of development of conceptions about god Tejri showed the higher step of transformation of the concept "sky". One shouldn’t forget that the sun was one of the main attrib- utes of Tejri. In cosmogony of the turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus Tejri (Tengri) personified the sun, light and the moon. In our opinion, in a hydrochloric cult of god Tengri (Tejri) it is necessary to search, first of all, for conceptions of the ancient Turk peoples about the sun, as a renewer of the nature and its big role in animal industries. Similar conceptions are observed among Karachais and Balkars for which cattle-breeding pattern is the main and leading one and is a heritage from turk-speaking ancestors. Turk-speaking ethnoses of the North Caucasus also revered the Earth, as the creator of crop and abundance, since agriculture played a considerable role in their economy. However, in a magic arsenal of these peoples there is much more devices directed on cattle preservation, increase in its kindle. It is not sur- prising if we consider cattle breeding peculiarity of their life-support system. An important place in cosmogonic conceptions of the turk- speaking ethnoses of the North Caucasus was occupied with fire. Ancestors of the turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus considered fire as a cleaning means. Thus, the profaned thing was held over fire for clarification. The ritual of cremation among Turkic tribes is also connected with this cult. Such a ritual was noted in medieval burial grounds at the upper reaches of the Chegem. Thus, the traditional outlook of the turk-speaking peoples of the North Caucasus, is focused on revealing the identity and similarity to the nature. Comprehension of this relationship for them, as well as for all Turkis, was actual throughout all culture development. Key words: mythology; cosmogonic conceptions; folklore; the sky cult; the earth cult; the water cult; the fire cult. VI. PROBLEMS OF HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNIC P. 200. Mirkin V.V. ON THE HISTORY OF THE SOVIET RADIO IN 1945-1965. Postwar radio developed in the Soviet Union as an integral part of a unified system of long-distance telecommunications, built with the combined use of wire, cable and radio equipment. Radio
Abstracts 236 communications in the Soviet Union was divided into two main groups: state radio service (Ministry of Communications) and departmental radio (other ministries and departments for office and industrial uses). This separation has been found in other sub-sectors of the Soviet tele- communications. In the 1960s began the implementation of transmitters and receivers with single-band modulation. The main advantages of single sideband radio in double narrowing band frequencies emitted by the transmitter, and to increase the reliability and communication range. The first of these advantages increases the number of channels in the radio frequency range and lower distortion, the second - better to use the power of transmitting devices. In the post-war period for the purpose of broadcasting begins using the new frequency range - meter waves. This band had many times greater capacity and allows arranging quality broadcasting with broadband frequency modulation. In fre- quency modulation increased noise immunity, in addition, in the meter wave range the level of atmospheric and industrial noise was signifi- cantly lower than in the long, medium and short wavelengths. The largest scale of construction and upgrading broadcast received during the seven-year period (1959-1965). At the radio centers were set, as a rule, local transmitters capacity of 100, 150 kW or more with anode modu- lation with more advanced radio tubes and parts with a high degree of efficiency. In the mid 1960s were commissioned the so-called syn- chronic broadcast networks. The advantage of such networks was the possibility of the work of many radio stations on a small number of frequencies. Network of cable and radio relay lines, through which the central radio programs broadcast on a special wideband radio chan- nels, provides high-quality performance, expanded. The development of a radio receiving network in the post-war years proceeded in two directions: expanding the air-network, that is, increasing the number of radio receivers for personal use, and the development of wired broad- casting - growth in the number of translational radio outlets. The radical change in both quantitative and qualitative composition of the broadcasting transmission network in the country has made it possible to expand the central union, national and local broadcasting, as well as external (foreign) radio. Established by the mid 1960s in the USSR network of radio stations on the long, medium, short and meter waves in technical means was one of the most powerful in the world. Key words: technology, telecommunications, broadcasting and wired radio. VII. DISCUSSION AND REVIEW P. 208. Vodichev E.G. THE REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPHY: KHAMINOV D.V. HISTORICAL EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AT TOMSK UNIVERSITY IN THE END OF THE XIX – IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURIES. Tomsk: Publishing House of The Tomsk University, 2011. 270 p. 300 copy. P. 209. Ablazhey N.N. REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPH OF V.I. BASHKUEV LITHUANIAN FORCED MIGRANTS IN BURIAT- MONGOLIA (1948–1960s). (ULANE-UDE, EASTERN SIBERIAN ACADEMY OF CULTURE FAND ARTS PUBLISHING HOUSE), 2009, 298 p. It is pointed out in the review that on the basis of some 4000 contingent of Lithuanians in Buriat-Mongolia in 1948 the author of the monograph managed to produce a multi-sided and complex view of the history of the Lithuanian exile to Siberia and provide with specif- ics of deportation campaign (operation of NKVD called “Spring” (Vesna)). The book contains the structure of the Lithuanians settlement, dynamics of births and mortality rates, the regime of the special settlements and adaptation practices. The reviewer attracts attention to the issue of accessibility for researchers the documents from the regional archives of the Internal Ministry and underlines that the study of V.I. Bashkuev is based on the materials of the Information Centre of the Republic Buriatia. Key words: deportations, ethnic exile, special settlements P. 213. Zhirkov G.V. REVIEW. THE FIRST MONOGRAPH ABOUT PROVINCIAL SHEETS:: SHEVTSOV V.V. «TOMSK PROVINCIAL SHEETS» (1857-1917) IN SOCIOCULTURAL AND INFORMATION SPACE OF SIBERIA. TOMSK: TSU, 2012. 414 PAGES. 300 ITEMS. P. 216. Letenkov E.V. REVIEW: SHEVTSOV V.V. «TOMSK PROVINCIAL SHEETS» (1857-1917) IN SOCIOCULTURAL AND INFORMATION SPACE OF SIBERIA. TOMSK: TSU, 2012. 414 PAGES. 300 ITEMS. P. 219. Izhendeev A.Yu. REVIEW: YAKOVENKO A.V., GAKHOV V.D. TOMSK GOVERNORS: BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX / SCIENCE EDITOR N.M. DMITRIENKO. TOMSK: VETER, 2012. 224 p., PORTRAITS. P. 221. Egorova N.I. BOOK REVIEW. LEKARENKO O.G. USA ANDTHE PROCESS OF UNIFICATIONOF COUNTRIES OF WESTERN EUROPE IN 1955-1963. TOMSK: TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING HOUSE, 2012. 408 p.