Preparation for FCE

Teacher's Guide for preparing students to FCE
Дополнительные данные
707
Просмотров
Учебные материалы > Общество
Дата публикации: 2012-01-20
Страниц: 32
1

Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE Carolyn Walker

Contents General 2 The FCE set texts 2 The advantages of choosing to study a set text 2 Extensive reading 2 Examination advantages 3 Managing the set book option 3 Choosing the book 3 Balancing the set book with other aspects of FCE preparation 4 Preparing for the set book option 6 q The exam questions 6 q Exam tips 8 q Working on aspects of the book 10 q Plot and scene 10 q Character 12 q Setting 14 q Themes 15 q Evaluating the book 15 q Remembering and revising the book 16 Photocopiable Student's Worksheets 1 FCE question types (1) 2 FCE question types (2) 3 A sample essay 4 Character timelines 5 Analysis of the plot 6 Who’s who 7 Character factfile 8 Character poster 9 Magazine interview 10 Personality chart 11 Characters on trial 12 Essential items for a visit 13 Working with themes 14 Evaluating the book

General EXTENSIVE READING Are your students preparing to take the UCLES First Reading a lot is good for you! Most teachers will agree Certificate in English examination (FCE)? If so, you that substantial reading is a vital part of the preparation probably know that FCE candidates may choose to write an needed for an exam such as the FCE. Students who read answer in Paper 2 (Writing Paper) on one of a choice of widely stand a much better chance of passing or set reading texts. This guide is designed to help you increasing their grade, simply because reading improves prepare your students for this part of the exam. It will also both their knowledge of language and their language skills. show you the ways in which choosing this option will be Research into extensive reading bears out teachers’ beneficial for your students. intuitions: there are many valuable language benefits and other benefits to be gained from extensive reading: The FCE set texts Language knowledge and skills Every year UCLES prescribes as set texts a list of five Reading a lot of material at the right level will give learners books, which may be novels, collections of short stories or valuable exposure to language (‘comprehensible input’), plays. The books may be original texts, or they may be reinforcing language learnt in class and helping in the ‘simplified’ versions (graded readers) which match the language acquisition process. For example, Krashen claims level of language comprehension required for the FCE that writing is largely learnt through reading (1993: pages exam. Each book stays on the list for two years. Up-to- 7 and 72)2, and that substantial vocabulary is acquired date lists can be found in the Exam Regulations published through reading (1993). Moreover, he also argues that every year by UCLES. Some examples from recent years spelling is mainly learnt through reading, instruction being are1: minimally effective. Other writers have claimed that Edgar Allen Poe, Tales of Mystery and Imagination (graded extensive reading: reader) q helps learners to acquire grammar (e.g. Elley 1991) Ernest Hemingway, The Old man and the Sea (any version) q helps learners to acquire vocabulary (Pitts et al. 1989, A Window on the Universe (collection of short stories - Elley 1991, Grabe 1995) unsimplified text) q improves writing ability (Hafiz and Tudor 1989); John Briley, Cry Freedom (graded reader) q improves reading skills including automatic letter and Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights (graded reader) word recognition, reading comprehension, reading Charles Dickens, Great Expectations (graded reader) strategies (Robb & Susser 1989, Grabe 1995, Hafiz Aldous Huxley, Brave New World (graded reader) and Tudor 1989) Daphne du Maurier, Rebecca (graded reader) q improves other language skills (eg speaking) and Best Detective Stories of Agatha Christie (unsimplified overall language proficiency (Elley and Manghubai text) 1981, Elley 1991) The principal reason that UCLES offers this option is ‘to encourage extended reading as a basis for the enrichment The reading habit of language study.’ (UCLES 1997 FCE Handbook: page On the affective level, reading books at the right level of 17)2. The primary purpose is not literary criticism. Rather, difficulty will encourage ‘the reading habit’. Students will candidates are offered the possibility in Paper 2 (Writing feel positive towards material they can understand without Paper), Part 2, Question 5, of simply showing that they great difficulty, and will therefore gain in confidence so have ‘read and appreciated a set text.’ (reference as that they will read more and more. In this way they will above). However, as can be seen from the above list, the have lots of practice in reading in English and so their set texts also function as an introduction to some of the comprehension skills will improve. As it is often said, ‘You better known works of English fiction. learn to read by reading’. Moreover, if students feel confident in reading in a The advantages of choosing foreign language, they will have access to a valuable to study a set text learning resource which is not dependent on other people such as teachers or native speakers. It is also possible that There are two main groups of advantages of choosing to students will learn to enjoy reading in the foreign language study a set text. The first has to do with the fact that and so they will have a means for ‘useful relaxation’. students will be involved in reading extensively at a level of difficulty which matches their ability. The second area of importance relates specifically to the FCE exam itself and its preparation. 1 For details of the particular editions on the UCLES list, refer to the UCLES FCE Handbook. 2 For all references, see page 17 of this guide, References and suggestions for further reading. 2

Cultural content especially at higher educational levels. Thus, the set book Through reading books in a foreign language, students will option offers the possibility to extend significantly an improve their understanding of its culture. Access to the important aspect of students’ reading skills. cultural information contained in novels and stories will enhance and build the background knowledge which is Managing the set book such an important factor in reading comprehension. option EXAMINATION ADVANTAGES CHOOSING THE BOOK The set book question Having decided that you will offer your students the The first, obvious point here is that reading one of the set chance to prepare for the set book option, there are a books increases the number of questions available to the number of issues to consider in choosing which book to candidate in Paper 2, Part 2. UCLES is keen for students to study. opt for a set text. To quote a recent exam report: ‘Students 1. First you will need to decide whether you will select one should be encouraged to read one of the background texts book for the whole class to work on, or whether you and consider choosing Question 5 in Part 2. They will will be able to let students work on different books, always have a choice of two tasks.’(UCLES 1997 FCE either individually or in groups. Examination Report: page 10) 2. Then there is the question of expense. Each student will Secondly, examination markers and teachers who have need a copy of the book to which they can refer taught FCE set books tend to agree that choosing to regularly. It is best if the students can have a book answer a set book question is a very good option. each. However, it may be possible for students to share Candidates who choose one of these questions often a book, or to withdraw the book from time to time from produce very good answers and therefore tend to get the class or school library. slightly higher marks than for the other questions in Part 2 3. UCLES’ list of set books would seem to vary in of the Writing Paper. There are, no doubt, various possible difficulty. For example, in the list of set book titles given reasons for this, of which some must have to do with a above, the vocabulary sizes range from perhaps 1800 certain ‘predictability’ of the questions. If students have words to unsimplified texts. However, unsimplified texts read the book and are reasonably familiar with the plot, will balance the relatively difficult vocabulary with easier setting, characters and themes, they will have ready-made plot lines. Thus your students may cope with ideas for answers to most of the questions which are likely unsimplified texts without much difficulty, or you may to be set. In other words, they should not have to think feel that they would be better with a simplified text. In very hard during the exam for something to write about. general, however, it is important that extensive reading Moreover, through reading, understanding and discussing texts do not contain a large number of unknown words. the book, they will learn the vocabulary they will need to If students are constantly having to refer to their use when they come to write their exam answer, which dictionaries, the reading process will be difficult and off- also has obvious advantages. putting, and students will not enjoy the books. As a Critical reading skills rough guide, it has been suggested that a ‘comfortable’ Most reading tasks, whether in class or in the FCE exam level of difficulty can be gauged by a ‘rule of hand’, that itself, operate at the level of basic comprehension of the is, if there are more than five unknown words on a text, whether this relates to the language or the content. page, the text is likely to be too difficult for pleasurable However, in reading and preparing for the set book extensive reading.1 questions, learners have the opportunity to read in a way 4. Finally, in the five books to choose from, each one will which is relatively unusual in today’s foreign language usually have quite different themes and subject matter. classrooms but which is a crucially important aspect of the You can obviously make a decision on the text yourself. reading skill. Specifically, the set book option asks for the However, motivation to read is very important in reader’s own interpretations and selections of what is extensive reading, so you will need to decide which particularly salient, significant or interesting for her/him. book would be the most interesting and engaging for The candidate is asked to read ‘critically’, in other words to your students. It is a good idea to allow the students to articulate a personal response to the text, to say what they help make the decision. There are several ways to do like or dislike, agree or disagree with, to suggest this: q You can give students a very brief summary of each alternatives to aspects of the text or to relate what they read to their own circumstances. Reading critically is a book (two or three lines) to find out which they think skill which students need in all areas of the curriculum and they will like the most. Day, RR & Bamford. 1998. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. page 122 1 3

q Or you could photocopy the summaries of the books on time in class actually reading. Rather, it is suggested that the back cover for students to look at. After they have you treat the book as extensive reading that students seen the summaries, students could discuss their mainly do out of class time, and that you use class time opinions and possibly take a vote. for working on aspects of the book. q You could give students a questionnaire to find out in general what kind of books they like to read: horror? Time needed for reading the book romance? detective stories? etc. Use this information to You will need to calculate how much time students will help you make your decision. need to read the set book. In this way you can set q You could give a copy of each of the books on the list realistic reading targets and you can make sure that to certain students and ask them to read the book and enough time is allowed for the set book preparation. As make a recommendation to the class. a very rough guide, and assuming the level of the book is about right for the students, they should manage to It is assumed in this guide that teachers will treat the set read at a rate of about 150 words per minute. Thus a book as a class reader. However it is also possible for book of around 85 pages with about 300 words per students working on their own to make use of the page should take approximately three hours to read1. Worksheets at the back of this guide. So if students read, say, for half an hour per week, they BALANCING THE SET BOOK WITH would need six weeks to complete the reading. For OTHER ASPECTS OF FCE longer books, you will obviously need a longer period PREPARATION to do the reading, or to increase the time spent reading per week. It is important to remember, however, that There is a lot to do to prepare for the Cambridge FCE, so there are very great variations between individuals in the time needed for work on the set book option will have their speed of reading. This is true regardless of their to be carefully assessed and planned for. If students are level of English. going to prepare the set book sufficiently well to be able to answer a question on it, they will need to: It is a good idea to divide the book into five or six q read the book manageable ‘chunks’, say three-to-five chapters, or 15-20 q understand the book pages, and set these for regular homework reading every q respond to and evaluate the book week. q review and revise the book If time allows, you may wish to read aloud a part of each q remember the book section to your students and ask them to finish the reading Reading the book at home. Alternatively, as many graded readers are First of all, ask yourself whether your students are already recorded on tape or on CD Rom, you could play the accustomed to reading extensively. If not, it is a good idea soundtrack while students follow the text in the book. to allow them to get used to reading easy books People of all ages enjoy being read to, whether in their extensively sometime before they will need to read their native language or in the foreign language. Hearing the set book. You may need to explain the purposes of words will both help students with their pronunciation extensive reading to them. Ideally, in an extensive reading (and with the reading process since knowing how words programme, students: sound is an important factor in reading), and also whet q develop their reading fluency their appetites for more and so increase motivation. q read for the meaning rather than to study language or Always finish the reading aloud with a few questions to translate it asking students to say what they think will happen next. q read easy material Understanding the book q read a lot Before reading the book q read fast q choose what they read Before students start to read the set book, introduce it to q enjoy what they read them so that their interest is immediately aroused. There q stop if they don’t like the book they have chosen are many ways to do this (see for example: Penguin (The last point will, of course, not apply to the FCE set Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Graded Readers, book!) For more information on extensive reading see the Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Film and TV, Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Graded Readers and the references at the end of this guide). Here are a few (available from Pearson Education offices worldwide) and suggestions: the references at the end of this guide. q If you have not already done so when choosing the Although you may be working with the set book as a book, look at the book cover and story summary. If the class reader, it is not recommended that you spend a lot of book contains pictures, look at these. Ask for predictions about: the type of book, where and when 1 Day & Bamford 1998: page 85 4

the story takes place, who the main characters will be. Chapter What happened Comments New words or section (mention events, characters, (give your opinion of or q Present one of the main problems or conflicts in the places, times) characters, events etc) key words story as if it were real, for example as something which happened to a friend of yours, or as something you read about in magazine. Ask students what they would do in the situation or what their advice would be. For example, if you are using Wuthering Heights (Penguin Readers, Level 5), you could show students a letter from Hindley to an agony aunt, complaining that his father has brought home a strange boy to live with the family. He doesn’t like the boy at all, and thinks his By completing story summaries, students can react to father has made a big mistake. What should he do? the story as they read it. Also, for each section, they q Alternatively, use a newspaper article format, or a can keep lists of words which are new or important, headline, to present the opening situation or problem. together with their meanings if required. A line should This would be suitable for, for example, the stories in be drawn across the pages before starting a new the collection Best Detective Stories of Agatha Christie section. The notebooks can be checked on a regular (Penguin Readers, Full Text), several of which begin basis. with reference to a newspaper article in any case. q It may be possible to make use of a film of the book to q Also, students can answer the comprehension introduce the setting and characters. (See Penguin questions that may be included in the book itself if it is Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Film and TV). a graded reader, and in the Penguin Readers Factsheet q If there are topics or themes in the book which are if it is a Penguin Reader. central to the story, (such as mental illness, smuggling, Responding to, reviewing and life in the future etc) you could start with a discussion remembering the book of these. q Think about the background information students will Once students have read a substantial part of the book, it need. Show them pictures or maps of places relevant to is possible to begin using lesson time to discuss aspects the book. Ask them what they know about the places of the book that are relevant to the exam. and the historical settings. If you have a lot of time you may be able to use lesson q Talk about the writer. Tell students something about her time while students are still reading the book to start or his life and times. Ask them to read any biographical exploring various aspects. information given at the front or back of the book. Point out facts or events in the writer’s life which may have The questions for the FCE writing tasks usually require affected aspects of the book. For Penguin Readers, you discussion of one or more of the following elements: can refer to the Penguin Readers Factsheets (available q character q plot q specific scenes q setting from Pearson Education offices worldwide), which q theme provide useful information about authors and In the sections which follow, suggestions for ways of background information. working with these various aspects are given. Accompanying Worksheets can be found in the second The following books and references contain many more half of the book. activities to use with a class before reading a book: Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Graded There will probably need to be a minimum of four or five Readers, Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Film sessions during the exam preparation period to cover and TV, and Penguin Readers Factsheets. these aspects of the set book. In addition, in parallel with discussion of the book, you can start to use some of the While reading the book writing classes to work on the set book questions. Finally, During the period when the students are reading the book, the Worksheets in this pack will also function as exam you will need to check that they are doing the reading, and revision sheets: if completed they will provide quick also that they have understood what they have read, reference to key information. Alternatively, you can use though at this point you may not want to use much class them as revision activities in themselves. time for this purpose. Instead: In the meantime, here is a suggested outline plan for the q You can ask students to complete story summaries for management of the set book option, assuming an exam each section they read. This can be in a notebook with preparation period of around 12 weeks with 3-5 hours per columns made over a double page as follows: week lesson time. (Important: This is a general guide for 5

students on specific FCE preparation courses. You can adapt this plan to suit the length of preparation time your students have.) Timescale Reading classes Writing classes Before the exam 1. Ensure students are familiar with, and have had preparation period some experience of, extensive reading of fiction. starts 2. Decide which set book you will choose. 3. Make sure there are sufficient copies available. Week 1 1. Introduce the chosen book to the students. During weeks 1-6: Students read the book at home 2. Explain how you will manage the reading and study Cover the other types of writing task of it. for the exam and the necessary writing 3. Set the first reading section and summary entry. formats, namely letters, compositions (discursive and narrative), reports and 1. Each week set a further section of reading. articles. Weeks 2-8 2. Read aloud to the students or listen to a tape in class for a short period (5-10 minutes) once a week, From around week 7: if you wish. 1. Use a writing lesson to do a set 3. Check the students’ section summaries and/or book composition with the class. comprehension questions each week. 2. Set a set book letter writing task 4. Use a class session to discuss the plot and/or some for homework or timed exam of the scenes. writing practice. 5. Use a class session to discuss the characters. q Limit these tasks to character, plot 6. Use a class session to discuss the setting. or scene. Week 9 Use a class session to discuss the themes. From around week 9: 1. Use a writing lesson to do a set book article writing task with the class. 2. Set a set book report writing task for Week 10 Use a class session for evaluation of the book . homework or timed writing practice. q In these tasks, include reference to plot, character, scene, theme or setting, as relevant. Week 11-12 Revision Timed writing question practice in class. Preparing for the set book describing a character or a place. A composition may require arguments for and against. The writer’s own option opinion may be asked for and should be supported with THE EXAM QUESTIONS reasons and/or evidence. Types of writing text An article The questions set are general enough to be applicable to This type of text should be written as if for a magazine or any of the set books. However, there are several newsletter, so that the target reader is someone of a possibilities for the types of writing text that occur as similar age or with similar interests as the writer, probably Question 5 in Part 2 of Paper 2. As with the other unknown to the writer. The main purpose of the writing is questions in Part 2, each type of writing assumes a to attract a reader’s attention and maintain their interest. particular context and reason for writing, and a ‘target The writing style can be informal and light-hearted or more reader’ so that the writing has a clear sense of audience serious. The article will probably contain some description and communication. It is important that students know and information, and should also contain the writer’s what is expected for each different text type. In the case of opinion. the set book option this will probably be as follows: A report A composition A report is a text based on fact-finding of some kind This is a formal piece of writing in which the assumed and is written to give information and probably to make reader is a teacher. Information will need to be given, and recommendations, though strong opinions expressed in this may involve narrating part of the plot or a scene, or a personal way are not required. The readers are assumed 6

to be either superiors, such as a teacher or a boss, or peers, A letter such as colleagues or classmates. The style is impersonal and This is written to a known person, such as a penfriend, and so formal. Layout is important so a title is a good idea and the style is informal. The purpose may be to give information, headings can be used for different sections. describe an experience or give reasons or opinions. The layout should be as if for a letter. Text type Style Reader Organization Content & layout Composition formal teacher * introduction * information * paragraphs * opinions & reasons * conclusion * suggestions or recommendations Article fairly informal; light- magazine or newsletter * title * information hearted or serious; reader (i.e. unknown peer, * introduction * opinion & reasons fairly personal someone of same * paragraphs * suggestions or age/interests) * conclusion recommendations Letter informal, personal a known person * salutation * information (eg penfriend) * paragraphs * opinion & * ending & reasons signature Report formal, impersonal a superior (eg boss) or a peer * title * information (eg colleague) * headings * suggestions or * introduction recommendations * paragraphs * conclusion Use Student’s Worksheet 1: FCE question types (1) (see back of book) to help students learn and remember what kinds of layout, style and assumed reader are involved in the different types of texts. You may wish to use this Worksheet at the beginning of the exam preparation period during a writing lesson. Or you can use it for revision purposes nearer the exam. Response types Student’s Worksheet 2: FCE question types (2) (see back Within the framework above, students will need to respond of book) gives some sample questions from previous in various different ways. Most of the set book questions, exam papers. Use Worksheet 2 near the beginning of the for example, will usually require candidates to: exam preparation period to show students what kinds of q give factual information about the book by describing questions are set in this part of the Writing Paper. The an aspect of Worksheet will also introduce them to the categories of 1. plot information about the book that they will need to be able 2. scene to supply in their exam answers. Ask them to read boxes 3. character A and B and tell them that during the classes to come, 4. theme once they have completed the reading of the book and 5. setting their section summaries, they will be given practice in q give some kind of personal response, such as: exploring these aspects of the book. 1. an opinion, e.g. saying whether they like or dislike Later on, perhaps during weeks 11 and 12, you can look something, an evaluation of the importance of a again at Worksheet 2 and ask the students to identify scene or character exactly what kinds of information and personal response 2. reasons for their opinions are required for each of the exam questions in the 3. recommendations or suggestions Worksheet. You can also use the questions in the 4. a response involving a degree of creative thinking or Worksheet for students to write practice answers. imagination 5. a comparison or a link with something outside the text or in the candidate’s own life 6. demonstration of insight and understanding 7

Suggested content for each exam question given on EXAM TIPS Worksheet 2 are given below: In general, students should not: q just describe the plot; q write about a book they have not read; Question A. Information about B. Personal no. q learn a model answer and use it for a question the book response for which it does not fit. But they should: 1 Character description Opinion and reasons supported by plot and q correctly identify the question types; scene description q correctly identify what types of response are needed; 2 Descriptions of plot, Opinion and reasons, q follow these steps when answering an exam scene, character, insight and question: think - plan - write - check; setting, as understanding, q make sure enough information is included for appropriate suggestions, someone who hasn’t read the book to recommendations understand the answer ; q make sure the answer fits the question. 3 Description of plot Creative imagination, When actually writing, students should: and scene reasons q use one paragraph for each main point; q make the line of argument and the function of 4 Character description Opinion, comparison each paragraph clear by using appropriate supported by plot and with something in connective words and phrases (e.g.: firstly,....; in scene description your life, reasons, addition, .....; on the other hand, ..... etc); insight and q support opinions with examples and evidence understanding from the book; q use things that characters have said or done to 5 Character description Opinion and reasons, supported by plot and insight and support opinions when writing character scene description understanding sketches. 6 Description of the Opinion and reasons, themes/ideas suggestion, For a sample essay which illustrates some of the supported by details recommendation above points about writing, see Student’s Worksheet of plot, scene, 3: character and setting A sample essay (see back of book). This Worksheet contains questions to help make these points clear. 7 Description of the Comparison with Although Worksheet 3 is concerned with writing set setting something in your life, book answers, the points made about writing are insight and general enough to be relevant to all the writing understanding questions, so that, if you wish, you can use this Worksheet in a writing lesson near the beginning of 8 Description of any of Opinion and reasons the exam preparation period. Or if you prefer, you can the elements (plot, use the Worksheet in a writing lesson from week 7 scene, character, onwards to focus particularly on the writing of a set setting, theme) book answer. 9 Description of any of Opinion and reasons Use Worksheet 3 as follows: the elements (plot, 1. Ask students to read through the essay and answer scene, character, question 1. setting, theme) 2. Now ask them (or remind them if you have already done Worksheets 1 and 2) what kind of style is 10 Description of any of Opinion and reasons required and what sort of content is required. the elements (plot, 3. Then ask them to answer questions 2 and 3. scene, character, Discuss the answers with the class. setting, theme) 4. Now focus on the other features of language and the organization. Look at questions 4-15 with the students, helping them to arrive at suitable answers. 8

Answers for Worksheet 3 are as follows. (Questions on the Question A. Information about the book B. Personal response Worksheet are in roman type below; answers to these no. questions are in italic type below the questions.) 2 Descriptions of plot, scene, opinion and reasons, character, setting, as insight and Listening to a well-known book on a cassette is appropriate understanding, suggestions, convenient for busy people who have no time to read. recommendations For example, you can listen while driving to work, or cleaning the house. There are many books available on With the possible exception of plot, these things can all be cassette these days. So would it be a good idea to said to have been included in the answer record ‘Wuthering Heights’ by Emily Brontë? 4. What is the function of the first paragraph? A listening version of ‘Wuthering Heights’ could help to q To provide an introduction and to attract the reader make it seem more interesting. For example, the weather and atmosphere are important in the story and 5. What is the function of the first three sentences in this so you could record the sound of wind and rain on a paragraph? cassette version. Adding some music would also q To provide some general background information increase its dramatic qualities. 6. What is function of the last sentence in this paragraph? In addition, if it is possible to hear the characters q To introduce the specific book which is the topic of the speaking it would help to imagine them and their text qualities. It would be very nice to hear Heathcliff’s 7. What is the function of the second paragraph? voice and that of the two Catherines. These are strong q To give a positive answer to the questions with specific characters who all have lots of emotions. Some reasons why it would be a good idea to record the book important scenes, such as when Heathcliff and Edgar quarrel about Isabella would be very exciting. 8. What is the function of the third paragraph? q to give some more reasons why it would be a good On the other hand, when you read a book, you idea to record the book normally enter the silent world of the imagination. To have real voices given to the characters might 9. Why has the writer chosen to make two paragraphs? perhaps spoil the enjoyment for some people. It would q The first paragraph is about atmosphere and the also be difficult, I think, to make sure that the voices of second is about the characters all the characters are different so that the listener is not 10. What words does the writer use to show how the confused. ideas in paragraphs 2 and 3 are connected? All in all, I would strongly recommend recording q for example, also, in addition ‘Wuthering Heights’ on cassette. But it could not really replace reading the book. 11. What is the function of the fourth paragraph? q to mention some problems 1. Look at Worksheet 2. For which of the questions does 12. What words in the first sentence make its function the essay above provide an answer? clear? q Question 2 q ‘on the other hand’ - to show contrast 2. Has the writer used the right kind of style? Find 13. What is the connection between the second and first examples of words used which indicate the type of sentence in this paragraph? style. q The second expands on the first and explains why there q Yes. It should be in a style suitable for a magazine may be a problem article. It begins in a way which is intended to capture 14. What is the function of the last paragraph? the reader’s attention. The style is fairly informal and q To conclude and make a recommendation personal, as it should be. Examples of this are: use of ‘So’ in the fourth sentence, ‘I’, ‘I think’, ‘all in all’, ‘you’ 15. Underline all the conditional verb forms in the essay. Why are these forms used? 3. Has the writer included the right sorts of ideas and q See the underlined words in the essay above. The information in the answer? Find examples. conditional is used because the answer requires some q The following was suggested for question 2 on speculation and expression of possibility. In the case of Worksheet 2 ‘I would recommend’, this is a fixed phrase which is often used in making recommendations. The ‘would’ is a kind of ‘hedge’ to make it seem polite. 9

WORKING ON ASPECTS OF THE q Alternatively, ask students to imagine they are a BOOK professional person such as a doctor, social worker, journalist, psychiatrist, or teacher. As this person they In the sections which follow some ideas are given to help give an account of the situation as they see it. students develop their understanding of the book’s plot, scenes, characters, setting and themes. There are also q Complete timelines which provide a quick summary of sections which deal with evaluating the book and with the story. You can do this by chapter or section with the revising for the exam. key events. Or you could organize timelines by Plot and scene character and chapter /section. For an example of the latter, use Student’s Worksheet 4: Character timelines The aim here is to help students develop a clear (see back of book). If the book is long you may need to understanding of what happens in the book, and also to make more copies of this Worksheet to include all the identify key scenes. Students should have an awareness of sections. why things happen as they do in the story, how one event leads to another. Tie in your activities with your students’ Activities after reading the whole book work on the section summaries, which students will be q Use Student’s Worksheet 5: Analysis of the plot (see completing as they read. back of book) to analyse the plot by summarizing: the Activities after reading a part of the book situation or problem facing the main characters; the key events which move the story on; choices facing the q If the section the students have read finishes at a point characters; their motives; the climax or high point of where the character is left with a choice, prepare, or ask the story; and how this is linked with or brings about students to prepare, an ‘Agony aunt letter’ in which the the ending. problem is described. Students can write or make suggestions for a reply. For example, in Wuthering If students complete this type of analysis, there are Heights (Penguin Readers, Level 5), at the end of bound to be differences between answers, which can chapter 9 it is clear that Catherine will have to choose then provide a basis for discussion. between Edgar Linton and Heathcliff. An agony aunt An example of how Worksheet 5 might be completed letter from Catherine could ask for advice on whether to is given below, using Wuthering Heights (Penguin marry Edgar or Heathcliff. Readers, Level 5). q Students can compare their summaries of the story, in pairs, groups or as a whole class. There will be variations in the summaries of different students. These differences can be exploited. The students concerned can be asked to explain their choice of key point or event. Use different contributions to build a section summary for the whole class. q Prepare a section or chapter summary which contains some errors. Students should find and correct the errors. q Use role play as a way of retelling what has happened in the section read. Students imagine they are different characters in the story. Each character will have a different view of events. In pairs, the different characters recount what happened. q Students work in groups. Each person in the group takes responsibility for one character. After reading a section of the book, each person writes a diary entry for their character, as if they are that character. They can include major events and, if you wish, another section recording their character’s reactions to the events. In the next class students spend a short time looking at each other’s diary entries. 10

Book: Wuthering Heights Opening situation(s)/ q Mr Earnshaw brings home a stray child, Heathcliff, who he has found in Liverpool, to be problem(s) brought up as his own child. (the main problem(s) q Mr Earnshaw’s own children react differently: Heathcliff is disliked by Hindley, and liked that confront(s) the by Catherine. characters at the beginning of the q Mr Earnshaw dies, and his son Hindley inherits the property. story) q Hindley treats Heathcliff badly, and Heathcliff swears to get his revenge. Key events q Hindley’s wife has a child, Hareton, and then dies. Hindley starts to drink heavily. (the main things that q After overhearing Catherine say she cannot marry him, Heathcliff disappears. happen: characters’ q Catherine marries Edgar Linton, despite knowing she really loves Heathcliff. choices/actions & their motives; q Heathcliff returns and starts to take his revenge. He makes Hindley fall into debt to him consequences of through gambling, and takes over the bringing up of Hindley’s son, Hareton. actions & events; q While Heathcliff visits Catherine at Thrushcross Grange, Edgar’s sister, Isabella, falls for events outside the him. Heathcliff sees he can take advantage of this. control of the q Heathcliff and Edgar quarrel over Isabella: Catherine becomes ill. characters) q Heathcliff and Isabella run away and are married, and then return to Wuthering Heights. q Heathcliff and Catherine meet and declare their love for each other. q Catherine gives birth to a daughter, Cathy, and dies. q Isabella runs away from her husband, Heathcliff, and has a son, Linton. q Hindley dies and Wuthering Heights now belongs to Heathcliff. One part of his revenge is complete. q Isabella dies and her son, Linton, also Heathcliff’s son, comes to Wuthering Heights. Cathy, his cousin and Catherine & Edgar’s daughter, meets him and falls for him. q Linton is due to inherit Thrushcross after the death of Edgar Linton, but Linton is weak and ill. Heathcliff wants his son to marry Cathy so that, in the event of Linton dying before Edgar, control of Thrushcross will go to Heathcliff. Climax q Heathcliff uses Linton to trick Cathy into going to Wuthering Heights. He keeps Cathy at (what happens to Wuthering Heights by force until Linton & Cathy marry. bring about the q Edgar Linton dies and Linton inherits Thrushcross. ending?) q Linton is ill and Cathy nurses him. He dies. q Heathcliff now has control of two estates, and the children of his two childhood enemies, Hindley and Edgar. His revenge is complete. Ending q Cathy and Hareton grow to like each other. q Heathcliff dies in a strange fashion, as if the spirit of Catherine has returned to take him to the grave. q Cathy and Hareton marry and go to live at Thrushcross. q Using their section summaries or the completed plot would have happened if x had or hadn’t happened. How analysis as a basis, students ‘make a pitch’. That is, set would the story have been different? up a role play activity in pairs in which student A q Discuss different endings. Ask students to imagine pretends to be a film script writer and tries to sell the different endings, or make a list of possibilities yourself. story to student B, who is a film producer. Put all the suggestions in a list and ask students which q Make a list of points in the story where various things they prefer. Use a ‘pyramid discussion’ method1 to might have happened differently. These points could be discuss the list of possibilities. choices facing a character, or events outside the q Make a list of key quotations: ask students to say who characters’ control. Ask students to think about what said them, when and why. 1 There are several steps in a pyramid discussion as follows: (i) students make up their minds individually on the question(s) to be discussed; (ii) they discuss their opinions in pairs and together come to an agreement on the question(s); (iii) the pairs join together to make a group of four. This group compares opinions and tries to come to an agreement to present to the class; (iv) the groups of four present their opinions and the whole class tries to make a decision. 11

q Make a list of short pieces of dialogue and a list of to go dressed as to a fancy dress party and why? What speakers. Students can match speakers to dialogues, or would they wear? Ask them to make a list of what they match comments and replies. would need to make themselves look like their q Make a summary of the plot containing some wrong character. facts. Students identify the mistakes. q Make use of magazine pictures to help students q Alternatively, give students a summary with gaps or a visualize the characters. Take in a selection of pictures plot skeleton to complete. and ask students to choose which pictures best fit the characters. q List a number of events in random order: students put the events in the order in which they occur in the story. What are they like? q ‘Tableaux’, a kind of drama technique, can be used to In the FCE exam, students will almost certainly have to encourage the remembering of key scenes in a way that analyse and describe the characters’ qualities, so they will is fun and enjoyable. In this technique, students work in need to have a good understanding of character traits and small groups. They choose a scene from the book, or motives and how these affect what happens in the story. chapter, and arrange themselves as if to make a still photo of the scene. They do not speak so it is not at all q Discuss with students what sort of people the threatening for those who lack confidence in drama characters are. Build a list of words and phrases to help activities. The other members of the class should guess describe the characters. See for example Student’s what the scene is. Worksheet 10: Personality chart (see back of book). Make sure that students can support their opinions with Character evidence from the book. Who’s who? q Discuss the good points and bad points of the One of the most important aspects of a book for the characters. Using Worksheet 10, you can discuss purposes of comprehension is having a clear idea of who whether the characters’ qualities mean that the the characters are and their relationships to each other. characters have more good points or more bad points. q It is possible that the book may give a list of characters. q Ask students to say who they like and/or dislike in the If not, students can list all the characters, together with story and why. Who would they most like to meet? In a their ages, jobs, relationships to each other etc. film, which character would they most like to play? Student’s Worksheet 8: Character poster can be used q After reading a certain amount of the text, perhaps a for students to make profiles of the character they like section or the first few chapters, ask students to or admire the most. complete a diagram such as in Student’s Worksheet 6: Who’s who? (see back of book), or a family tree, to q It is important that students can provide evidence from show the relationships of the characters to each other. the book for judgements made of the characters. Select If students do this individually, they can compare their some events from the book and list them in a column answers in pairs. on one side of a worksheet. In a second column, make a list of adjectives or phrases. What do the events q Another way to consolidate the necessary information reveal about the characters? Ask students to choose is to use a ‘factfile’ format, as used in pop magazines. suitable adjectives or phrases from the second column. (See Student’s Worksheet 7: Character factfile at back of book). q ‘Wordsearch’ puzzles can help with learning key words and vocabulary associated with a character’s behaviour. q Test understanding of who is who and what their roles They are easy to make. Simply put the words you want are by playing a guessing game such as ‘Twenty students to learn into a grid and fill the spaces with questions’, where one person thinks of a character, or random letters. Ask students to find the words. Then pretends to be a character, and the others have to ask they should examine the text for parts which describe twenty questions in order to find out who the character behaviour characterized by the words. Here is an is. They can only ask twenty questions - no more. example: q Build mental pictures of the physical appearance of the characters. Find parts of the text where the appearance of people is described. Copy these parts of the text and make a cloze exercise by deleting key words used to give a picture of the character. q Ask students to choose which character they would like 12

Here are some words which describe Hercule Poirot in x s u o i d i t s a f the story ‘The Adventure of the Clapham Cook’ in Best z y o b p r a p f t s Detective Stories of Agatha Christie (Penguin Readers, p e r s e v e r i n g Full Text). a b d t w z q o s f n fastidious kind persevering clever t i k i n d o u z y i obstinate tactful patient proud i a e n l n r d i a m charming polite e g t a c t f u l h r Can you find the words in the puzzle opposite? n k e t i l o p n m a The words are arranged up, down, left to right and right t q t e u w v a c b h to left. w z x t s r e v e l c (If this is too easy for your students, don’t give them the list of words first.) When students have found the words, ask them to check any unknown words in their dictionaries and then look in Answer: the story to find places where Poirot behaves in ways described by the words. x s u o i d i t s a f z y o b p r a p f t s p e r s e v e r i n g a b d t w z q o s f n t i k i n d o u z y i i a e n l n r d i a m e g t a c t f u l h r n k e t i l o p n m a t q t e u w v a c b h w z x t s r e v e l c q Use a ‘pop star’ style interview for a magazine, such as q An important aspect of character is motive. Discuss Student’s Worksheet 9: Magazine interview (see back with students why characters act in particular ways or of book) to encourage students to develop a real why they make the choices they do. You could put this understanding of the characters. In answering these into a ‘trial’ frame as in Student’s Worksheet 11: types of questions they will have to use everything they Characters on trial (see back of book). For this know about the characters and imagine appropriate Worksheet you should list some of the actions done by answers. If you feel this requires too much imagination a character and dictate these to the students. This could from your students, cross out any questions which become a true/false exercise if you include some things cannot be answered with information from the set text not done. Students then put themselves in the role of itself. the character and say or write whether they are guilty or q You can adapt Student’s Worksheet 9 for a group not guilty, giving reasons for their behaviour. Some of activity. Photocopy one set of questions for each group. the accusations may not have an obvious answer and Cut the questions up into strips and put them into an may lead to discussion. Here is an example, using envelope or a box for each group. Each person in the Wuthering Heights (Penguin Readers, Level 5): group should ‘be’ one of the characters. The students take it in turns to take a question from the envelope or box and answer in role. q Make use of horoscopes to help develop understanding of a character. For this you will need to find descriptions of the personalities of the different star signs. Ask students to say which star sign they think a character was born under. 13

Setting q Teacher dictates the words in bold: Students need to have as clear a mental picture of the (Name): Heathcliff ...you are charged with the setting as possible. If you can, provide pictures or film following: clips to help with this (as noted above). 1. You gained possession of Wuthering Heights by q Find parts of the text which describe the place and build crooked means. knowledge of the vocabulary students can use for 2. You married Isabella even though you did not love descriptions of the setting, both the time and the place. her. Make cloze exercises with these parts of the text. 3. You were cruel to Hareton Earnshaw. q Discuss what role the setting has in the story. Find 4. You forced Cathy Linton to marry your son, Linton parts of the text which show how it affects characters’ Heathcliff, so that you would gain control over behaviour or events in the story. Try imagining the story Thrushcross Grange. taking place in a different setting. Would it work? q Ask students to imagine they’re going for a visit to the q Students then prepare answers to the charges, as place in the story. Ask them to think about what they follows: would they need to take with them and why. This will How do you plead and what is the reason? help them to imagine the environment, as well as 1. Not guilty. I did nothing illegal. How could I help it requiring understanding of the story. You can use if Hindley Earnshaw gambled away all his Student’s Worksheet 12: Essential items for a visit possessions? I only took what was owed to me. (see back of book) for this purpose. An alternative way 2. Guilty, I suppose. It is true I did not love her. But I to use the Worksheet is to limit the number of items to, saw a good way to take my revenge on Catherine say five, and have a pyramid discussion so that you end for marrying Edgar, and on the Linton family for with five items agreed by the whole class (See taking away Catherine from me, and for Edgar’s Footnote 1, page 11.) insults to me when I was younger. q Find parts of the text that describe buildings. Ask 3. Not guilty. The boy loved me. I merely made sure students to write estate agent descriptions of the that he was brought up as I was, that is with no buildings. education or social graces. Just as his father did q Ask students to read a particular section and to find key with me. words or phrases that give a feel of the place and then 4. Not guilty. It is true that I tricked her into coming to make an acrostic from its name. This will help to Wuthering Heights and that I kept her there until students to learn the necessary vocabulary. There they were married. But she said she was willing to are two ways to do this, as shown in this example marry Linton, so I didn’t force her. I was doing her from Part 1 of Wuthering Heights (Penguin Readers, a favour, in fact, making sure that she would be Level 5): looked after when her father died as the estate Acrostic 1 would go to Linton on her father’s death. I know W - wild, windy, wet Linton might have died before Edgar and then U - unusual decorative stonework Cathy would have inherited Thrushcross. But he T - trees didn’t, did he? H - hills E - evil-looking guns R - rough weather q Other aspects of character which should be discussed I - ice are: N - north wind (i) comparisons: with another character in the book; also G - grass growing between the stones with people that the students actually know in real life. You could use a grid format, such as in Student’s Worksheet Acrostic 2 10: Personality chart (see back of book). begging for the warmt H of the sun (ii) changes: how do characters change through the book? froz E n hard At the end of the book, have the characters learnt pouring w I th rain anything? If you use character timelines (Worksheet 4), poorly G rown trees changes in characters as the book progresses can be the whole H illside was one white ocean of snow easily recorded. a branch of a tree T ouching my window mi S ty and cold 14

q Alternatively, students can be asked to list key words Tracking the themes or words from a particular lexical field and turn them q Once the themes have been identified, they can be into an acronym for easy memorization, like this tracked through the book using a similar diagram as example from ‘The Million Dollar Bond Robbery’ in Best that used in Worksheet 4. Instead of writing the Detective Stories of Agatha Christie. characters’ names in the boxes on the left of the sheet, write the theme(s). Then ask students to identify in aloof sllaq each section or chapter events or other aspects which are connected with the theme. In this way students will ashore sail see how the author develops the theme through the liner land book. on board lie q Ask students to link particular themes with characters overboard alongside in the book, giving reasons for their choices. floating palace quay q Make a list of themes in the book and find a selection of suitable extracts from the book. Ask students to match themes with extracts. Themes q Alternatively ask each student to choose a particular theme to work on. Then ask the students to locate parts The themes portrayed in a book are an important element of the text which deal particularly well with their chosen in producing a personal response in the reader. Students theme. They should be able to explain their reasons for should be encouraged to think about and have opinions their choice of extract. about their book’s themes. Note that FCE exam questions may refer to a book’s ‘topics’ or ‘ideas’, rather than using q If characters in the book have particular problems, they the word ‘theme’. can be presented as agony aunt/advice column letters to which students can write replies. Alternatively the Identifying themes problems can be used in a class debate or a pyramid q Asking students some or all of these questions may discussion. help to reveal the themes and topics portrayed in the book. EVALUATING THE BOOK Why do you think the writer wanted to write this story? After discussing the various aspects of the book above, What do you think his/her aims are? and towards the end of the study period, it is a good idea If someone asked you, ‘What is the story about?’, what for students to evaluate the book. The exam questions are would you say? likely to require opinions on whether they liked the book, What does the story tell you about life in .....? or certain aspects of it, or not, and why. What does it tell you about life in general? q Student’s Worksheet 14: Evaluating the book provides What does it show you about how people behave in questions which students can use to help them form different circumstances? opinions of most of the aspects of the book which they Are there any lessons to be learnt from this story? may need to discuss in the exam. This Worksheet can Is there anything in the book which is relevant to your own be completed by each student individually, or they can life? work in pairs and record their partner’s answers. Tell q Look back at Worksheet 5. The section on the opening students that in the exam it is important to give reasons situation or problem (if it has been completed) may for their opinions. help to reveal the book’s main themes. q Alternatively, the same questions can be slightly q Use Student’s Worksheet 13: Working with themes modified to make a ‘Find Someone Who ...’ exercise, as (see back of book) to help students think about themes shown overleaf: and ideas in the book. On this worksheet are many of the common themes to be found in novels, although the list is by no means exhaustive. Add some more words if you wish. Ask students to try to distinguish between the main themes and the less important ones. 15

Find someone who Name q Tell students that they should imagine that they are going to write a screenplay for a film of the book. In 1. ..... enjoyed this book. order to do this, they will have to cut substantial parts of the book. Ask them to refer to their section 2. ..... did not enjoy this book. summaries or character timelines and decide which parts of the book could be omitted from a film. They 3. ..... especially liked.............................. can compare their answers in pairs and report back to (name of character) the class, giving reasons for their decisions. 4. ..... did not like..................................... REMEMBERING AND REVISING THE (name of character) BOOK For the exam, students will need to remember the story 5. ..... was reminded of someone they and everything they have learnt about the book. It is a good idea to revise key points with students before the know by.................... (name of character) exam. You can make use of memory techniques and games to help with this. 6. .....liked the part of the book when ..................................................... best. q If students have completed the Worksheets in this book, they can refer to these to help revise key points. 7. ..... liked the part of the book when q Some of the ideas for activities already described will be equally useful for the revision stage. ......................................................least. q Ask students to look at Worksheets 1-3 again to test whether they know now what they should write in an 8. ..... found ........................................... exam answer. Remind students of the various ‘Do’s and ...........................................interesting. ‘Don’ts’ listed in the Exam tips section on page 8. q Key words and ideas can be made into acrostics or 9. ..... would have.................................... acronyms for easy memorization. if they had been the writer. q Similarly, simple crossword puzzles can be devised in which the questions and answers concern elements and aspects of the book which students need to remember. 10. ..... agreed (or did not agree) with the q ‘Board games’ are also an enjoyable way to try to writer’s view of .................................... remember a story. See Penguin Readers Teachers’ Guide to Using Graded Readers for an example. 11. ..... has learnt that................................ q Make a selection of sentences from the book and write them on slips of paper. Put all the slips of paper into an ......................................from this book. envelope. In groups, each student takes a piece of paper from the envelope and has to say what the 12. ..... thinks this book would make a sentence refers to, and what happened before and after. good film or TV series. q From the book, find a number of pairs of statements and replies. Write each one on a slip of paper. Give each student a slip of paper and ask them to learn by heart what is on the paper so that they can say it easily. The spaces in the questions above can be filled in before Take the slips of paper away. They must find their the exercise by the teacher or by the students. When partner by going around the room and saying their students have found names to put in the right hand sentence. column, these people can be asked to give reasons for q An adapted form of a guessing game known as their opinions in a whole class feedback session. ‘Botticelli’ will help students remember characters and q Ask students to make a list of about five people that what they did. In this game, (taking Best Detective they know (friends, family etc). Ask them to say Stories of Agatha Christie as an example) student A whether each person would enjoy the book and why or starts by saying: ‘I’m thinking of someone.’ The other why not. students then start to ask ‘type 1’ questions about 16

actions or characteristics, such as: ‘Did this person Acknowledgement pretend to be a housekeeper?’ Student A has three The questions from past examination papers on Worksheet options for a reply: (i) if the answer to the question is 2 of this guide are reproduced by permission of the ‘no’, Student A must say so and also say who the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. questioner was thinking of, eg. ‘No, it’s not Mrs The publishers make grateful acknowledgement to them. Havering.’ If student A is wrong in her guess as to who the questioner had in mind, she is then out of the References and suggestions for further reading game; (ii) if student A doesn’t know who the questioner Duff, A. & A. Maley. 1990. Literature. Oxford: Oxford is thinking of, she must say ‘I don’t know’ and she is University Press then ‘out’ of the game. (iii) If the answer to the question is ‘yes’, Student A must say so and the questioner is Elley, WB. 1991. “Acquiring Literacy in a Second allowed a ‘type 2’ question such as: ‘Is it Mrs Language: The Effect of Book-based Programs.” Language Havering?’- If the answer to this question is yes, the Learning 41/3/375-411. questioner wins a point and a new round starts. If no, Grabe, W. 1995. Presentation to Colloquium on Research student A has a point and the questioning continues. It in Reading in a Second Language. 29th TESOL Annual is a good idea to limit the number of type 1 questions Convention, Long Beach, Ca. allowed in each round. Greenwood, J. 1988. Class Readers. Oxford: Oxford q Make a game based on the themes in the book as University Press. follows. (This game is based on a well known board Hafiz, FM & I Tudor. 1989. “Extensive Reading and the game called ‘Pictionary’). Write all the theme words on Development of Language Skills.” English Language a set of cards. Students should work in groups of Teaching Journal 43/1/4-13. around six or eight. In each group there are two teams Krashen,S. 1993. The Power of Reading. Englewood: of three or four: A and B. Each team has a pencil and Libraries Unlimited Inc some clean sheets of paper. For each group you will Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Graded also need some means of timing, such as an hour glass Readers. 1998. Harlow: Longman. or a stop watch. The cards are laid face down on each group’s table. The game proceeds like this. One student Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Film and TV. from team A takes a card from the pile without showing 1999. Harlow: Longman. it to the rest of his/her team. S/he then has one minute Pitts, M, White, H & S Krashen. 1989. “Acquiring Second (strictly timed) to try to draw a picture of the word on Language Vocabulary through Reading: A Replication of the card so that his/her team can guess what the word the Clockwork Orange Study Using Second Language is. If he/she succeeds and the team guess correctly, Acquirers.” Journal of Reading in a Foreign Language they score one point. If not, the team scores nothing. 5/2/271-275. Then a student from team B picks a card and the same Robb, TN & B Susser. 1989. “Extensive Reading vs Skills procedure takes place. This continues until all the cards Building in an EFL Context.” Journal of Reading in a have been used. The team with the highest number of Foreign Language 5/2/239-251 points wins. UCLES. 1997. First Certificate in English Handbook. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. UCLES. 1997. First Certificate in English Examination Report June 1997. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Addresses University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate 1 Hills Road Cambridge CB1 2EU UK Tel: (01223) 553311 Fax: (01223) 460278 17

Student’s Worksheet 1 FCE question types (1) In Paper 2 (Writing) in the First Certificate in English exam, there are different types of question to answer and it is important that you know what is required for each type. You need to think about the best style to use, what sort of person might read the type of answer you write, how to organize your ideas and how to lay out your answer. Choose appropriate words from boxes A, B and C below and write the words in the empty labels for each question type. A. STYLE B. READER C. ORGANIZATION & LAYOUT formal teacher title informal someone of your age/interests headings & sections light-headed friend introduction serious superior eg. boss paragraphs impersonal colleague conclusion personal salutation ending & signature P H O T O C O P I A B L E Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 2 FCE question types (2) As well as considering the style, reader, layout and organization, you also need to recognize what kind of content the set book exam questions require. Look at these questions, some of which are from past FCE papers. What ideas should you include in your answer? Choose answers from boxes A and B below. A. INFORMATION * plot description What information about the book * description of one or more scenes should you include in your answer? * character description * description of the setting (place and time) * description of the themes/ideas B. PERSONAL RESPONSE * opinion(s) * reason(s) What kind of personal response is * suggestion(s) required? * recommendation(s) * comparison(s) with something in your own life * insight and understanding * creative imagination 1 Which character in the book or in one of the short stories do you most dislike? Write a composition giving reasons for your choice. (©UCLES, June 1998). 2 TALKING BOOKS - recordings of well-known books on cassettes - are becoming very popular. You have been asked to write an article for an English magazine, saying how well the book or one of the short stories you have read would work on cassette, and what some of the problems might be. (©UCLES, June 1998) 3 Can you imagine a different ending to the book you have read? Write a composition, summarizing how the book or short story might end and giving your reasons for the new ending. (©UCLES, December 1997) 4 Do you know anybody who resembles one of the characters in the book? If so, write a composition, stating how you know this person and explaining in what ways he or she is similar to the character in the book. Mention any differences. (©UCLES, December 1997) 5 Write a composition, saying which character in the book you think the author most enjoyed writing about and giving your reasons why. (©UCLES, December 1998) 6 Your teacher has asked you to suggest a book which would be suitable for class discussion. Write a report for your teacher on the book you have read, describing how the author covers one topic in the book that you think would be suitable for class discussion. (©UCLES, December 1998) 7 Write a composition, describing a place in the book which you find different to where you live. Explain what the main differences are. (©UCLES, June 1997) P H O T O C O P I A B L E 8 “We didn’t just read the book for pleasure. It also helped us with our study of English.” Do you agree with this student’s statement? Write a composition, explaining why or why not, with reference to the book which you have read. (©UCLES, June 1997) 9 A friend of yours has written to you saying that he/she has been asked by a teacher to read the book you have just read. Write a letter to your friend saying what you liked and/or did not like about the book. 10 Many well known books have been made into films. Write an article for a magazine saying whether you think the book or one of the short stories you have read would make a good film, giving your reasons and explaining what difficulties there might be. q Choose one of the questions above to write a timed practice answer. Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 3 A sample essay Look at the sample essay below and then answer the questions which follow it. Listening to a well known book on a cassette is convenient for busy people who have no time to read. For example, you can listen while driving to work, or cleaning the house. There are many books available on cassette these days. So would it be a good idea to record ‘Wuthering Heights’ by Emily Brontë? A listening version of ‘Wuthering Heights’ could help to make it seem more interesting. For example, the weather and atmosphere are important in the story and so you could record the sound of wind and rain on a cassette version. Adding some music would also increase its dramatic qualities. In addition, if it is possible to hear the characters speaking it would help to imagine them and their qualities. It would be very nice to hear Heathcliff’s voice and that of the two Catherines. These are strong characters who all have lots of emotions. Some important scenes, such as when Heathcliff and Edgar quarrel about Isabella, would be very exciting. On the other hand, when you read a book, you normally enter the silent world of the imagination. To have real voices given to the characters may perhaps spoil the enjoyment for some people. It would also be difficult, I think, to make sure that the voices of all the characters are different so that the listener is not confused. All in all, I would strongly recommend recording ‘Wuthering Heights’ on cassette. But it could not really replace reading the book. Answer these questions: 1 Look at Worksheet 2. For which of the questions does the essay above provide an answer? 2 Has the writer used the right kind of style? Find examples of words used which indicate the type of style. 3 Has the writer included the right sorts of ideas and information in the answer? Find examples. 4 What is the function of the first paragraph? 5 What is the function of the first three sentences in this paragraph? 6 What is function of the last sentence in this paragraph? 7 What is the function of the second paragraph? 8 What is the function of the third paragraph? P H O T O C O P I A B L E 9 Why has the writer chosen to make two paragraphs with paragraphs 2 and 3? 10 What words does the writer use to show how the ideas in paragraphs 2 and 3 are connected? 11 What is the function of the fourth paragraph? 12 What words in the first sentence make its function clear? 13 What is the connection between the second and first sentence in this paragraph? 14 What is the function of the last paragraph? 15 Underline all the conditional verbs in the essay. Why are these forms used? Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 4 Character timelines In the spaces for each section, write what happens to each character. Number of chapter or section Characters’ names P H O T O C O P I A B L E Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 5 Analysis of the plot Book: Opening situation(s)/ problem(s) (What is/are the main problem(s) that confront(s) the characters at the beginning of the story?) Key events (the main things that happen; characters' choices/actions & the consequences of these; events outside the control of the characters) P H O T O C O P I A B L E Climax (What happens to bring about the ending?) Ending Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 6 Who’s who? Label the spidergrams below. Write the names of the characters on the spiders’ bodies. On their legs write facts about the characters, such as their age or the age covered by the story, sex, job, role in the story etc.. P H O T O C O P I A B L E Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 7 Character factfile Choose a character from the book and complete the following: All you need to know about: Name:............................................................................................................ Age at the beginning/end of the story: ......................................................... Job/role in the story: ..................................................................................... Family: .......................................................................................................... Lives in: ........................................................................................................ Good points:.................................................................................................. Bad points: .................................................................................................... Likes:............................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................... Hates: ............................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................... Worst moment:.............................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................... Best moment: ................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................... Ambition: ...................................................................................................... P H O T O C O P I A B L E ....................................................................................................................... Anything else? .............................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 8 Character poster Who is your favourite character in the book or story? Make a poster showing why you like him/her. In the circles below write some words or phrases which describe aspects of his/her personality that you like or admire. In the squares write some things which he/she did in the story. Draw a picture of your character or find a suitable photo from a magazine to put in the picture frame. Give your poster to your partner and ask him/her to guess who your character is. Finally write your character’s name on the picture frame. P H O T O C O P I A B L E Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 9 Magazine interview Choose a character from the book. Here are some questions which a magazine reporter would like to ask your character*. Write the answers you think your character would give: q What is your favourite colour? ............................................................................................................... q What is your favourite animal?............................................................................................................... q What is your favourite food? .................................................................................................................. q What is your favourite type of car? ........................................................................................................ q What is your favourite piece of music? .................................................................................................. q What is your favourite place? ................................................................................................................. q What is your favourite piece of clothing? .............................................................................................. q What is the worst thing you have ever done?......................................................................................... q What is your most embarrassing moment?............................................................................................. q What would you have written on your gravestone? ............................................................................... q What do you like to do to relax? ............................................................................................................ q Would you rather be a lake or a river?.................................................................................................... q What would you like to change most about the world? ......................................................................... q Have you ever loved anyone who didn't love you back? ....................................................................... q Who would be your perfect marriage partner? ....................................................................................... q What are the most important qualities in a wife/husband?..................................................................... q Who would you like to play you in the movie of your life? .................................................................. q Have you ever seen a ghost?................................................................................................................... q Do you believe in life after death?.......................................................................................................... q Have you ever felt as if you were going mad? ....................................................................................... q What makes you happy? ......................................................................................................................... q Do you have any regrets?........................................................................................................................ q What has been the lowest point in your life? ......................................................................................... P H O T O C O P I A B L E q What helps you through difficult times?................................................................................................. q Do you find it easy or hard to trust people? ........................................................................................... q What do you do if you ever feel lonely? ................................................................................................ q What would you do if you found a wallet on the street? ....................................................................... q If you could have three wishes, what would they be?............................................................................ * Add some more questions if you would like to. Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 10 Personality chart Write the characters’ names along the top of the chart. Put ticks in appropriate boxes for each character. When you have finished, discuss with a partner your reasons for your opinions. Make another chart with different words or phrases if you wish. Names of the characters in the book Qualities patient impetuous sensible rash cautious serious funny adventurous brave violent timid clever foolish affectionate passionate cold vivacious excitable quiet dull contented miserable cheerful nervous restless calm honest dishonest fussy obstinate charming P H O T O C O P I A B L E mean greedy generous kind cruel arrogant humble stern malicious Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 11 Characters on trial Your teacher will dictate some sentences about a character to you. You are that character. You should say whether you are ‘guilty’ or ‘not guilty’ and give an explanation for each charge. (Name).........................................................you are charged with the following: 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4 ...................................................................................................................................................................... How do you plead and what is the reason? 1 2 3 P H O T O C O P I A B L E 4 Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 12 Essential items for a visit Imagine you are going for a holiday to the place where the story is set. Which of these things would you take with you and why? swimming costume gun chocolate tent boots torch playing cards mobile phone thick coat pen radio candle medicines dog umbrella paper a good novel calculator suntan oil binoculars guitar laptop computer hot water bottle matches money sticky tape thermos camera bicycle wig newspaper knife watch diary Make your list and give your reasons below: Things to take: Why you would take them: P H O T O C O P I A B L E q Compare your list with a partner. Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 13 Working with themes Which of these words are relevant to the story? Choose 10 words and put them in order of most to least important: pain hate tion future de struc travel jealousy city poverty shame family ve ature heroism death divorce crue lty lo n eat crime abuse birth revenge kindness old h c illness oney danger country m dance love peace creation tragedy supernatural isolatio treachery comedy passion n on un power sea animals per suasi derstan ding good prejudice violence evil miser y stupidi ty music relig repetition mystery war colour ion light ld addiction pare nt and chi darkn ess marriage friendship i ntelligenc e happiness greed Write your list below. When you have finished, compare your list with a partner. Be ready to explain your choices. P H O T O C O P I A B L E Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Student’s Worksheet 14 Evaluating the book Complete this questionnaire for yourself or for a partner. Delete the words which do not apply. 1 Overall, I/ ..................................... (name of partner) enjoyed / did not enjoy this book because ........... ................................................................................................................................................................... 2 I/ ..................................... (name of partner) especially liked ..................................... (name of character) because...................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... 3 I/ ..................................... (name of partner) did not like ..................................... (name of character) because....................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... 4 ..................................... (name of character) reminded me/ ..................................... (name of partner) of ......................................................................... because/when .............................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 The part of the book I/ ..................................... (name of partner) liked best was .................................. ........................................................ because.............................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 The part of the book I/ ..................................... (name of partner) liked least was ................................. .................................................................. because.................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Something I/...................(name of partner) found interesting in the book was ....................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... 8 If I/ ..................................... (name of partner) had been the writer, I/...................(name of partner) would have................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................... 9 I/ ..................................... (name of partner) agree(s) / do(es) not agree with the writer's view of.......... ........................................................................... because........................................................................... P H O T O C O P I A B L E ................................................................................................................................................................... 10 From this book I/ ..................................... (name of partner) have/has learnt........................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... 11 I/ ..................................... (name of partner) think(s) this book would / would not make a good film or TV series because ...................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Preparing for FCE ©Pearson Education Limited 1999

Chkmark
Всё

понравилось?
Поделиться с друзьями
Prev
Next

Отзывы